My grandparents were the biggest example, well my grandpa adopted well to the gilit and learned but when my grandma married him and moved down south she did'nt mingle much with Arab speakers because we had communities there where Syriac was spoken so she did't use Arabic much, of course her Arabic remained broken and weak where people could mistake it for the qeltu dialect where in fact she never knew any Arabic before leaving her home village.
I'm not too sure if the same thing could be said about the Jews because the Baghdadi Jews from what I understand have been in those regions for a long time and Arabic was their daily language, but there was Jews who spoke Aramaic dialects in north Iraq as well and I'm pretty sure their Arabic was no different than my grandparents which is broken since Arabic was not their first language..
I thought I'd just throw in a few points being an Iraqi myself (although living in the UK most of my life). I'm afraid I just skimmed the discussion quickly, so sorry if I don't address all the points.
The giltu dialect is, as was said Maslawi, spoken by the natives of Mosul. There is an extensive range of vocabulary that is specific to Maslawe, although most of it is not frequently used. This includes both completely new words and phrases, as well as variations on words ('like this' is heshikl in Maslawi, hiikii in Baghdadi (by ii I mean ي)
Differences tend to be in the structure of words - the word for button for example in Mosul is digmii, in Baghdad is digma, 'how is he?' about a male would be shlono in Mosul, but shlona in Baghdad, they say ana in Mosul but anii in Baghdad etc. Also, there's a kind of slang spoken in Baghdad called shrogii.
As for a Christian dialect, I'm heard some Iraqis speaking another dialect, which I think that they referred to as the language of the Christians, by which they mean Aramaic. Its spoken by only a small number of Iraqis, and is completely different to the Iraqi dialect.
Again, sorry for the patchy answers, I didn't have the time to read the whole thread and probably lack the knowledge to answer some of your more detailed questions.
Ok, I have a few more things to add than I had before:).
First off, I don't pretend to know much about Christian history, so I can't really say much about Christian presence in Baghdad.
However the Jewish presence in Baghdad is very ancient. Jews have been living in southern Iraq for at least 2,000 years, even in the pre-Christian era. The Jewish community of Baghdad was for a long time the absolute authority on matters of religious concern, as well as literature and cutlure.
Jews have been speaking qeltu Iraqi Arabic since at least the 14th century(At least the 10th?). This is what I read from reviews of apparently the seminal work on the subject, The Jewish Baghdadi Dialect Studies and Texts in Judeo-Arabic, by Prof. Jacob Mansour, who is Jewish Iraqi and immigrated when he was young to Israel, along with many other Jewish Iraqis.
I have not read his work yet as I haven't been able to find it online. Hopefully the uni library has it. The reviews I have read come from The Bulletin of African and Oriental Studies and AJS Review, as well as a large amount of Googling.
First, I would like to comment upon the written texts of Jewish Baghdadi. There are a few contexts under which Jewish Arabic speakers wrote down their dialect in Hebrew characters. One is folk tales/literature. Another is treatises on Jewish theology and matters of religion. A final one is the tradition of شَرح shar7 present throughout Arabic-speaking Jewish communities since the Middle Ages (
ca 13th century and onward? - not sureSee Edits below). This is the tradition of line-by-line translation of the Bible into Judeo-Arabic. The tradition has several "centers" - one in the Maghreb based upon the tradition of Algiers and Al-Andalus. The other is centered around Cairo. There is the Yemeni tradition, and finally, you guessed it, Baghdadi.
The language in these شرح texts needs some clarification. First off, while Arabic-speaking Jewish scholars were probably well-versed in fus7a, there was a certain amount of Islamic feel attached to writing in fus7a, and therefore they often wrote in Judeo-Arabic, i.e. dialectal Arabic, in order to maintain solidarity with Jewish readers. The language often uses loan words from Hebrew and Aramaic, especially with relation to religious terminology. For example, the word مسيح for Messiah is replaced with the word مشيح Mashii7, a loanword from Hebrew. Also, even though the language was largely dialectal in nature, there were certain attempts to "correct" it in ways approaching fus7a, such as say using الذي even after such a form was no longer common in speech. Thus what developed was a quasi written standard - a pseudo-fus7a for Jews:) written in Hebrew letters. This written language then subsequently impacted the spoken language of Jews, resulting in what would become "Jewish" dialects of Arabic.
Here is a paper on Judeo-Arabic literature. The other reviews I only had access to with my uni login - they are copyrighted and published. I can give full citation to them to anyone who requests it.
Also, like in Iraq, "Jewish" dialects of Arabic, were often really quite like other dialects of Arabic, however they contrasted prevalent dialects in the spoken centers of Arabic Jewry. This in some ways is related to Jewish patterns of migration. So for example, the Jewish dialect of Cairo was very similar to Alexandria Arabic. Thus the dialect wasn't so much a "Jewish" dialect in Cairo, but rather an Alexandrian dialect in Cairo, mostly spoken amongst Jews while Cairene Arabic was becoming most popular among Muslims. Similarly, in the 14/15th centuries, the ancestor of what is now termed "Maslawi" or Mosul Arabic, was the prevalent dialect throughout all of Iraq. Thus after the Badawi/Gulf influenced dialect was affecting Muslim speech in Baghdad, Jews preferred to maintain the older Iraqi speech amongst themselves.
Finally, as promised, I have transcribed an excerpt from the book of Genesis from Hebrew into Arabic characters. Since it is a Bible translation, it is in pseudo-Classical style. For example, the ending ـا is added to nouns which are indefinite and manSuub. I'm not always certain of my transcription. Here is the original. The first line in every sentence is Hebrew, then Aramaic, then Arabic. Only the Arabic line is written without vowel pointings - I assume because Arabic speakers would not need them.
I have tried to normalize it to Arabic spelling a little for ease: for example, alif maqsuura is written with alef in Hebrew, not with yod in the word على. However, the word إلى is written with yod, but with a mark over it. I'm not sure what that means exactly in terms of pronunciation, if anything. Note, the written form here is the standard form of Judeo-Arabic (the pseudo fus7a I mentioned before), and I'm not exactly certain if this text is Iraqi. After I get my hands on the Mansour book I may post more (it lists a bunch of texts in Iraqi in its appendix). The edition of text is from 1894 - however, the translation itself is undoubtedly a lot earlier, since I doubt it was re-done too many times.
Edit: There is an interesting alef-lamed ligature in the original which is used everywhere for the definite article الـ.
اوّل ما خلق الله السماوات والارض. والارض كانت غامرة مستبحرة وضلام على وجه الغمر، وريح الله تهب على وجه الما. فشا الله ان يكون نور فكان نور. فلمّا علم الله ان النور جيّد فصل بين النور والضلام. وسمى الله اوقات النور نهارا واوقات الضلام ليلا. لمّا مضى من الليل والنهار يوم واحد.فشا الله ان يكون جلد في وسط الما ويكون فاصلا بين المايين. فصنع الله وفصل بين الما الذي من دونه وبين الما الذي من فوقه. فكان كذاك. وسمى الله الجلد سماا. لمّا مضى من الليل والنهار يوم ثاني.فشا الله ان يجتمع من تحت السما الى موضع واحد ويضهر اليباس فكان كذاك. فسمى الله اليباس ارضا وملام الما بحارا لمّا علم الله ان ذالك جيّد. فشا الله ان تكلا (تخلا؟) الارض كلاا وعشبا ذو حب وشجرة ذو ثمر مخرج ثمر لاصنافه مه غرسه منه على الارض. فكان كذاك.
ُEdit2: Reading over this, it may clearer if I point out that شا is the verb شاء. Hamza is not indicated by any mechanism as far as I can tell in the Hebrew character version of the text. I have also determined that this text is the Saadya Gaon translation, which he did whilst in Iraq. He himself was from Egypt. The language is still "standard" Judeo-Arabic. He lived during the 10th century, which sets back the clock even further than my approximations above (and may make this even more interesting for Arabic dialectology enthusiasts). Again, I'll post again to this thread after I retrieve the Mansour text.
Thanks for taking the time to transcribe this, it was very interesting. There's a great deal that can be said here, and I'll try to come back and comment some more, but for now, I'd like to ask, what made you think Iraqi Jews only began speaking Arabic in the 13th or 14th centuries?
As for the Christians in Mousel yes there has been and there still is a big community there that speaks Arabic only because for so many generations the street language has been Arabic, so Aramaic eventually died out among this community while other Christians were living in villages where Aramaic was the street language, these Maslawi Christians still follow the Syriac Churches so in reality they are only Arabic speakers but not Arab.