a) to be
b) to go
irregular in your language?
a) to be
b) to go
irregular in your language?
Hmmm...That's a hard one for me because as a native speaker of Polish, I don't really have a sense of what's regular and what's not. I can give you the cojugations and you draw your own conclusions:
być - to be
Ja jestem - I am
Ty jesteś - You are
On/ona/ono jest - He/she/it is
My jesteśmy - We are
Wy jesteście - You are
Oni/one są - They are (oni is masculine, one is used for a group consisting only of women)
iść - to go (meaning, walk on foot)
Ja idę - I go
Ty idziesz - You go
On/ona/ono idzie - He/she/it goes
My idziemy - We go
Wy idziecie - You go
Oni/one idą - They go
jechać - to go (by car, by train, etc)
The verb "to go" looks quite normal and regular to me. However, in the conjugation of "być" the infinitive form and the personal forms look totally different, they don't have the same stem. Hope that helps
They are irregular in Czech:
to be: být
jsem, jsi, je, jsme, jste, jsou
to go on foot: jít
jdu, jdeš, jde, jdeme, jdete, jdou
to go (in a vehicle)/ride/drive: jet
jedu, jedeš, jede, jedeme, jedete, jedou
The conjugations of jít and jet are not so irregular if you look at them, if you compare them to the infinitive, they look somewhat different. Maybe some time ago the infinitive was more regular and was something like jdet and jedet, but it's just my speculation. The funny thing is that Russian jít, идти, has an unpronounced d in it, which comes up again (and is fully pronounced) in its conjugation.
As regards the verb "to go" (on foot), let me add my somewhat unscientific take on it:
First, I think the default translation for "to go" is "chodit" rather than "jít". The latter in fact means "to be going".
I go there every week. Chodím tam každý týden.
I'm going to the pub. Jdu do hospody.
An interesting feature of "jít" is that its perfective aspect seems to lack infinitive:
Půjdu tam. I'll go there. But there is no infinitive such as "půjít".
But the biggest irregularity in my opinion is that "jít" has a completely different root in the past tense then in the present tense: "šel jsem..."
I know, but I chose it and not chodit to match Polish iść, to which it is equivalent in etymology and usage.First, I think the default translation for "to go" is "chodit" rather than "jít". The latter in fact means "to be going".
Maybe this old thread will pique dihydrogen monoxide's interest.
Deuparth gwaith yw ei ddechrau.
biti: sem, si, je, sva, sta, sta, smo, ste, so
iti: grem, greš, gre, greva, gresta, gresta, gremo, greste, grejo/gredo
Both are obviously irregular.
As for the verb to go, most Slavic languages don't have a direct translation for this verb. Slavic verbs of motion are extremely complicated and English to go can translate into many different verbs depending on the context. In South Slavic languages, the system of these verbs has been somewhat simplified, but just take a look at the complexities of the Russian verbs of motion.
Generally speaking, the verbs of motion tend to be quite irregular. In particular, the ones coming from the Proto-Slavic *jьti (Croatian ići, Russian идти, Polish iść, and the others already mentioned in this thread) tend to be very irregular and suppletive.
In Lower Sorbian the verb "to be/byś " goes like this:
The verb "to go/hyś " looks like this:
ja du, źom
As you see they're quite irregular, too.
Bulgarian to be:
az sum - I am
ti si - you are
toi e - he is
tia e - she is
to e - it is
nie sme - we are
vie ste - you are
te sa - they are
Bulgarian to go:
da ida - to go(I)
da idesh - to go(you)
da ide - to go(he/she/it)
da idem - to go(we)
da idete - to go (you)
da idat - to go(they)
In Macedonian, to be is irregular: (I agree with Athaulf regarding his last post)
Да се биде /Da se bide/:
(Јас) сум /(Jas) sum/ (I) am
(Ти) си /(Ti) si/ (You) are
(Тој/Таа?тоа) е /(Toj/Taa/Toa) e/ (He/She/It) is
(Ние) сме /(Nie) sme / (We) are
(Вие) сте /(Vie) ste/ (You) are
(Тие) се /(Tie) se/ (They) are
While to go is a regular one:
(Јас) одам /(Jas) odam/ (I) go
(Ти) одиш /(Ti) odish/ (You) go
(Тој/Таа/Тоа) оди /(Toj/Taa/Toa) odi (He/She/It) goes
(Ние) одиме /(Nie) odime/ (We) go
(Вие) одите /(Vie) odite/ (You) go
(Тие) одат /(Tie) odat/ (They) go
The personal pronouns can or may not be used, since the existence of separate forms for each person. =)
Last edited by echo chamber; 10th August 2008 at 9:43 PM. Reason: forgot to mention a detail
съм: съм, си, е, сме, сте, са
да бъда: бъда, бъдеш, бъде, бъдем, бъдете, бъдат
I think this is the case in Sebrian , too. Am I right?
I forgot the verb бивам - slightly archaic but almost same meaning.
In Bulgarian, there are three conjugation forms and all the vеrbs obey the rules, except for съм.
And we have many words for "to go".
Last edited by Darina; 12th August 2008 at 1:59 AM.
Well, in Slovenian there also exists a conjugation of "biti" with the "bode-" root: bodem, bodeš, bode, bodeva, bodeta, bodeta, bodemo, bodete, bodejo; but this is just a longer form ob the "bo-" root, which is only used for FUTURE tense! There is only one "to be" verb in Slovenian.
Infinitive of "to be" in Slovene is "biti". You drop the "-ti" ending and you get the stem, then you add: -l/la/lo/li,... --> bil/bila/bilo,... and you get a participle(opisni deležnik) which is used for past tense, pluperfect, conditional of the verb to be,...
In Slovene only "to be" is used to form past tenses(of which there are only two). The future si formed using the future of the auxiliary "to be" (bom, boš,...) and the participle on -l. There is no other way to form the future tense in Slovene. Slovene does not form the future tense with "hoteti", "to want" as Croatian for example.
Conditional is formed using "bi"(the remnant of the old aorist, which no longer exists in Slovene) which is the same for all persons and the main verb is again in its participle(-l) form.
To be or not to be in Slovene: biti ali ne biti.