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Thread: Greek loanwords in Arabic

  1. #1
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    Greek loanwords in Arabic

    Could you share what you know about this? I know one loanword that it has become a root for new word: sophia > S-W-F > tasawwoof

    Actually I'm studying on Mameluk-Kipchak texts and these turkic texts have somewhat Greek loanwords and what I wonder is whether those come from Arabic or Anatolian Greek (within the range of 13th century to 15th century)??

    The words that I have come across are mantar "mushroom", marul "lettuce", kirevet "bench, armchair", somun "a kind of bread".

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    Interesting, I didn't know somun was a Greek loanword. This dictionary seems to suggest it entered Turkish directly from Greek (psōmón). The same dictionary suggests the same for kerevet < krábbatos.
    Last edited by DenisBiH; 16th June 2011 at 4:02 PM.

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    Here are some more Gr. to Turkish loans.
    http://spacezilotes.wordpress.com/20...υρκικη/

    and more: http://users.otenet.gr/~aker/LekseisA-D.htm

    But they include much academic terminology that has been borrowed from Gr. by almost every language in the world.

    There is a Greek book with 4.600 words common between Greek and Turkish:
    Title: Κατάλογος κοινών ελληνικών και τουρκικών λέξεων, εκφράσεων και παροιμιών
    Author:
    Κωδικός προϊόντος
    Place and date of publication: Athens 2008
    ISBN:
    978-960-02-2168-8


    Last edited by berndf; 31st July 2011 at 9:51 PM. Reason: Replaced commercial link by bibliographic information

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    Quote Originally Posted by Edguoglitigin View Post
    Could you share what you know about this? I know one loanword that it has become a root for new word: sophia > S-W-F > tasawwoof
    Actually taSSawwof is more likely from Arabic Suuf (wool), I've heard two opinions, the less likely one is from Arabic Safaa (purity). Sophia does not really seem very likely; in all cases, this is not a good example because it's not agreed upon.

    Actually I'm studying on Mameluk-Kipchak texts and these turkic texts have somewhat Greek loanwords and what I wonder is whether those come from Arabic or Anatolian Greek (within the range of 13th century to 15th century)??

    Quote Originally Posted by Edguoglitigin View Post
    The words that I have come across are mantar "mushroom", marul "lettuce", kirevet "bench, armchair", somun "a kind of bread".
    I didn't recognize the first two, but I always thought the second two are Turkish too. I didn't even know that they were used in Egypt - the Egyptians I know don't use them or even knew what they mean before.

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    Quote Originally Posted by artion View Post
    Here are some more Gr. to Turkish loans.
    http://spacezilotes.wordpress.com/20...9%CE%BA%CE%B7/

    and more: http://users.otenet.gr/~aker/LekseisA-D.htm

    But they include much academic terminology that has been borrowed from Gr. by almost every language in the world.

    There is a Greek book with 4.600 words common between Greek and Turkish.
    https://www.perizitito.gr/product.php?productid=143138

    Artion, I actually wonder the Greek loanwords in Arabic. Cause there are some claims that some Oghuz Turks who had used to live in Anatolia emigrated to Mameluk-Kipchak region (Egypt-Syria) about 14th-15th century and this made Kipchak Turkic evolve into Oghuz Turkic. Therefore some Greek loanwords (maybe we should call them Rumian) can give an idea about this situation.

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    Quote Originally Posted by Mahaodeh View Post
    Actually taSSawwof is more likely from Arabic Suuf (wool), I've heard two opinions, the less likely one is from Arabic Safaa (purity). Sophia does not really seem very likely; in all cases, this is not a good example because it's not agreed upon.
    I think the safaa word can not be the root of tasawwoof because according to word pattern tafa'ul its last sound must be a vowel. In addition to this fact, suuf "wool" sounds semantically irrelevant to me.

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    Safaa is a suggestion, as I said, not very likely. The more likely is Suuf, but it is not irrelevant. Actually it even seems more relevant to me. When they first showed up their major characteristic was wearing wool only - rough, non-refined wool - as a way to denounce worldly pleasures; hence, they were mutaSauufeen, i.e., wearing wool.

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    Quote Originally Posted by Edguoglitigin View Post
    ...
    marul "lettuce"...
    Marul probably derives from the Byzantine «(ἀ)μαρούλιον» (ama'rulion, and ma'rulion, when the initial alpha is omitted, neuter noun ) which ultimately derives from the Latin, amarulla lactuca (bitter lettuce); adj. amarus-->bitter (cf. Italian amaretto). Modern Greek, «μαρούλι» (ma'ruli, neuter noun)-->lettuce.

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    As far as I know, nâmus is a loanword from Greek nomos.

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    Note also Turk. kanun - instrument, and Kanunname - laws > Gr. Κανόνας - scale , rule, precept and so on.

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    Some words are loaned back and forth between Greek - Turkish - Arabic, like this:

    Ar. and Pers. defter (book, note-book, registry), turkish tefter. From the ancient Gr. diphthera (a thin leather membrane for writting on both sides< di+phtheiro (double use) ). The original word became obsolete in medieval and modern Gr. but was reloaned from turkish to modern Gr. as tefteri (note-book). The original is used in the medical term diphtheritis.

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    English port, Greek Limani turned into the Arabic Minah (like with Alexander-Iskander, the Arabs interpreted the beginning L as "The"). This Greek word also entered Hebrew as Nemal.

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    OK, I just remembered a couple, Arabic funduq for hotel and fustuq for Pistachio‏ are originally Greek, or at least I think I recall reading something like that.

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    All right, fustuq from «πιστάκη» (pi'stake, f.) the tree, and «πιστάκιον» (pi'stakion, n.) the fruit, is understandable.
    How on earth does one get funduq for the hotel (?), from the «Ποντικόν κάρυον» (Ponti'kon 'karuon, n.), the "nut of Pontus" (hazelnut), is beyond me!
    Ponti'kon>Funduq, which gave the Turkish fındık and the Modern Greek «φουντούκι» (fun'duci, n.); but fındık and φουντούκι is this:
    http://i52.tinypic.com/14e08km.jpg

    How do you arrive to hotel from hazelnut?

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    Quote Originally Posted by apmoy70 View Post
    All right, fustuq from «πιστάκη» (pi'stake, f.) the tree, and «πιστάκιον» (pi'stakion, n.) the fruit, is understandable.
    How on earth does one get funduq for the hotel (?), from the «Ποντικόν κάρυον» (Ponti'kon 'karuon, n.), the "nut of Pontus" (hazelnut), is beyond me!
    Ponti'kon>Funduq, which gave the Turkish fındık and the Modern Greek «φουντούκι» (fun'duci, n.); but fındık and φουντούκι is this:
    http://i52.tinypic.com/14e08km.jpg

    How do you arrive to hotel from hazelnut?
    See here: http://forum.wordreference.com/showthread.php?t=1188778

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    Quote Originally Posted by tFighterPilot View Post
    This Greek word also entered Hebrew as Nemal namel.
    Via Aramaic: limen -> limna -> nimla -> namel.

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    Quote Originally Posted by origumi View Post
    Thanks Origumi, interesting

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    Since it's not mentioned in here yet, I thought I'd draw your attention to what is often called the 'translation movement', which was a large scale transfer of knowledge into Arabic from Greek very early on during the Islamic era. I don't know a great deal about it, but I suspect it was when the first ground rules were laid down regarding how to arabise certain greek words - often choosing emphatic constants over non-emphatic ones.

    Much technical terminology has been taken directly from greek rather than latin or european languages even recently; though they're very similar words, often the pronunciation remains - in my opinion - closer to the original than in English or French ( ديمقراطية diimuQraaTiyya ) but sometimes the pronunciation is Arabised ( فلسفة falsafa).
    اذكر الله

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    I've heard that Arabic has some Latin loans, for example, genius became "jinn" and, in Central Asia it means fool, idiot (< possessed by jinn).

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    Re: Greek loanwords in Arabic

    I don't think jinn has anything to do with genius, jinn were called so because they are unseen and the root j-n-n has the meaning of invisibility or hiding.

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