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Thread: All Slavic languages: False friends

  1. #1
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    All Slavic languages: False friends

    Quote Originally Posted by natasha2000 View Post
    Just a little correction. This is called "false friends", bacause the same word means two completely different things in two languages. The examples yuou gave are perfect, since "false friends" do not exist only in English, but in all languages.
    trudna - slovenian - tired
    trudna - croatian/serbian - pregnant
    False friends is very "deep" subject in slavic languages:

    For example
    Polish: "Poprawić" - means to improve
    Chechs: "Popravit" - means to spoil

    Polish: "Szukać" - to find
    Chechs: "Sukat" - to fuck

    Polish: "Ja wolę" - I prefer
    Serbian: "Ja volim" - I love

    Polish: "Spawanie" - welding
    Serbian: "Spavanie" - sleeping

    and many more

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    Re: Serbian/Croatian: Similarities

    Quote Originally Posted by decomposed06 View Post
    Polish: "Spawanie" - welding
    Serbian: "Spavanje" - sleeping
    Just a little correction....

    BTW, very interesting list...

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    Re: Serbian/Croatian: One language?

    False friends? Polish vs Russian:

    zapomnieć - forget
    запомнить - memorise
    zapamiętywać - remember
    запамятовать (an older version of забыть) - forget

    krzesło - chair
    кресло - arm-chair
    dynia - pumpkin
    дыня - melon
    pukać - to knock
    пукать - to fart (the word is not too rude, talking about kids, for example)

    More here:
    http://sister-kari.livejournal.com/2190.html

    The one I like with Russian vs Czech:

    pozor - attention
    позор - disgrace

    EDIT:
    Similarly "позориште" in Serbian means theatre, in Russian "позорище" - is disgrace, like позор but emotionally stronger and more colloquial.

    (Serbian "шт" maps to the Russian "щ" in most words; - in Bulgarian the letter щ is pronounced as шт but "theatre" is "театър".)
    Last edited by Anatoli; 13th September 2006 at 11:58 AM. Reason: Fixed "позориште" thanks Beclija :)
    Анатолий أناتولي 阿纳托利 アナトーリー 아나톨리 अनातोली อานาโตลี آناتولی

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    Re: Serbian/Croatian: Similarities

    Quote Originally Posted by decomposed06 View Post
    False friends is very "deep" subject in slavic languages:

    For example
    Polish: "Poprawić" - means to improve
    Czech: "Popravit" - means to spoil to execute (to put to death)

    Polish: "Szukać" - to find to look for
    Czech: "Šukat" - to fuck
    Some corrections.

    Jana
    A great deal of intelligence can be invested in ignorance when the need for illusion is deep. Saul Bellow

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    Re: Serbian/Croatian: One language?

    A little correction:
    Quote Originally Posted by Anatoli View Post
    Similarly "позориште" (accent on first syllable, and there is no such thing as щ in the Serbian alphabet - might be correct for Bulgarian, though) in Serbian means theatre (not sure about the accent but щ is pronounced "sht"), in Russian "позорище" - is disgrace, like позор but emotionally stronger and more colloquial.
    And your example about chairs made me think of one of the rare false friends within German:
    Tvoj primjer sa stolicama me podsjeća na jedan od rijetkih primjera unutar njamačkog jezika:

    Austria:
    Sessel - chair - stolica
    Germany:
    Sessel - arm chair - fotelja

    ...and another one:
    Polish:
    pokój - room - soba

    Croatian:
    pokoj - quietness, rest - pokoj
    Last edited by beclija; 13th September 2006 at 6:30 AM.

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    Re: All Slavic languages: False friends

    English - Polish x Czech - English

    maybe - chyba x chyba - mistake
    matter - rzecz x řeč - language, speech
    hail (weather) - grad x hrad - castle
    celebration, festivity - obchód x obchod - shop
    shop - sklep x sklep - cellar
    cellar - piwnica x pivnice - pub

    chair - krzesło x křeslo - armchair
    liquid - płyn x plyn - gas
    enemy - wróg x vrah - murderer
    berry - jagoda x jahoda - strawberry (thread)
    deck (of a ship) pokład x poklad - treasure
    ship, craft - statek x statek - farm, manor
    bed linen - pościel x postel - bed
    April - kwiecień x květen - May
    briefcase - teczka x tečka - point, full stop
    west - zachód x záchod - restroom
    capital city - stolica x stolice - chair, faeces (well, yes... )
    day (24 hours) - doba x doba - time, duration
    a pleasant smell - zapach x zápach stench (do you know how funny it is to hear Polish commercial spots about "świeży zapach", a fresh stench? )
    corn - zboże x zboží - merchandize
    country - kraj x kraj - edge, margin, rarely region (thread)

    Pairs in italics are - if I am not mistaken - notoriously know in the Czech Republic.

    Kurzívou psané dvojice jsou - pokud se nemýlím - v České republice notoricky známé.



    Jana
    A great deal of intelligence can be invested in ignorance when the need for illusion is deep. Saul Bellow

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    Re: All Slavic languages: False friends

    More false friends in Slavic languages here.

    Još lažnih prijatelja u slavenskim jezicima ovdje.


    Abans d'ensenyar, aprèn. Allò que està ben après, mai no es perd.

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    Re: All Slavic languages: False friends

    Excellent link, GoranBcn.

    a pleasant smell - zapach x zápach stench
    Запах has also positive meaning in Russian like in Polish and unlike Czech but "вонь" is "stench" Russian but "woń" is "fragrance" in Polish.

    Jana, in your list I see that Russian coinsides sometimes with Polish but sometimes with Czech. Excellent work!

    In my observation, although words can mean quite different things in different Slavic languages, which can be fun and cause some interesting situations or just a smile, they can be understood and explained when the roots are known. Words can mean opposite things but have the same roots - forget/memorise or smell/stench/fragrance, etc.
    Last edited by Anatoli; 13th September 2006 at 11:33 AM.
    Анатолий أناتولي 阿纳托利 アナトーリー 아나톨리 अनातोली อานาโตลี آناتولی

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    Re: All Slavic languages: False friends

    Two funny examples that I like to give to students (these are not mine, I've learnt them off one of my university teachers), why you should be very careful when translating things that seem obvious:

    pl: kawior - caviar
    puszka - a tin
    rus: ковёр - carpet
    пушка - cannon

    kawior w puszce - tinned caviar
    ковёр в пушке - a carpet in a cannon

    The other way round, there is a whole sentence built only of false friends, which in Russian sounds fully innocent, and - if translated 'by ear' into Polish - gets a very indecent connotation:

    Сначала разберёмся, а потом будем доказывать кто на кого может положится.

    Russian: First we will assess the situation, and then we will be proving who can count on whom.

    Polish "false friend" translation: First we will undress, then go playful and lie on each other.
    Last edited by janek; 13th September 2006 at 11:51 AM.

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    Re: All Slavic languages: False friends

    English - Polish × Czech - English

    tree - drzewo × dřevo - wood
    way - droga × droga - drug, narcotic
    stick - laska × láska - love
    toilet - ustęp × ústup - retreat
    tent - namiot × námět - theme
    state - stan × stan - tent
    pool, pond - staw × stav - state
    fox - lis × lis - press, squeezer
    finger - palec × palec - thumb
    short - krótki × krotký - tame
    government - rząd × řád - order
    priceless - bezcenny × bezcenný - worthless
    livestock - bydło × bydlo - livelihood
    hypocritical - obłudny × obludný - monstrous
    institute - zakład × základ - base, foundations
    maple - klon × klon - clone

    English - Slovak × Czech - English

    bitter - horký × horký - hot
    thin, slim - chudý × chudý - poor

    I remember very furious disputation caused by these very specialized and slightly varying false friends:

    Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus) krysa × krysa - rat (Rattus rattus)
    rat (Rattus rattus) - potkan × potkan - Brown Rat (Rattus norvegicus)

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    Re: All Slavic languages: False friends

    I remember very furious disputation

    Werrr, may I give you some help with your English?

    It would be more correct to say "I remember a furious dispute .."

    "very furious" is not incorrect but "furious" is seldom qualified with "very" because the word itself means "very/exteremly angry", which makes "very" redundant. (I'm sure that it wasn't a furious dispute and that you are just using hyperbole!)

    I suppose that you could form the noun "disputation" from the verb "dispute" but this word sounds strange and I have never seen it before.

    Regards,

    Brian

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    Re: All Slavic languages: False friends

    Quote Originally Posted by Brian P View Post
    Werrr, may I give you some help with your English?
    Of course.
    Quote Originally Posted by Brian P View Post
    It would be more correct to say "I remember a furious dispute .."
    Yes, I know, I always forget these "redundant" English words .
    ...
    I suppose that you could form the noun "disputation" from the verb "dispute" but this word sounds strange and I have never seen it before.
    Yes, dispute and disputation are cognate but I used it as a word directly derived from Latin disputatio. Czech disputace and German Disputation mean an academic dispute. In English, I used it unwittingly in the same way, but now I'm not sure it was correct.

    I think we are a little off-topic and it is suitable to open a new thread, Jana could you please...
    Last edited by werrr; 13th September 2006 at 6:13 PM.

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    Re: All Slavic languages: False friends

    In Serbian:

    drvo - tree/ wood, lumber
    droga - drug, narcotic
    laska -
    flattery (laskati - to flatter)
    ustup(ak) - concession
    stan - flat, apartment
    stav - posture / pose, position / attitude
    lis(ac) - (male) fox / (fig.) sly person
    palac - thumb
    krotak - tame, gentle, meek
    kratak - short, brief
    rad - work, labor

    red -order
    bescenje - cheap
    zaklad - ornament / pledge, guaranty
    klon - clone
    reč - word /
    talk, speech, conversation / the right to speak, the floor
    grad - city, town / hail (weather)
    pivnica- pub, bar /
    tavern / beer hall
    plin - gas

    vrag - devil, Satan
    jagoda - strawberry

    poklade - carnival (rel.)
    postelja - bed

    posteljina - bed linen
    tačka - period, full stop / item, point / dot
    zahod - toilet
    stolica - chair /
    residence, seat, see (as in the Holy See) / bowel movement (nemati stolicu - to be constipated)
    doba - time / era, period, epoch / age / season
    kraj - end / region, area; neighborhood; / as prep. next to, near, beside;
    Уби ме прејака реч!

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    Re: All Slavic languages: False friends

    Quote Originally Posted by Anatoli View Post
    The one I like with Russian vs Czech:

    pozor - attention
    позор - disgrace
    We have a cognate of the above in Polish too (with different meaning):
    pozór - appearance(s)

    Quote Originally Posted by beclija View Post
    ...and another one:
    Polish:
    pokój - room - soba

    Croatian:
    pokoj - quietness, rest - pokoj
    There's I think a corresponding Polish cognate to Croatian pokoj:
    pokój--peace
    and its derivative:
    spokój - quietness, calmness




    Quote Originally Posted by Jana337 View Post
    English - Polish x Czech - English




    capital city - stolica x stolice - chair, faeces (well, yes... )
    We have stolec which means faeces.


    English--Polish--Russian--English:
    boobs--piersi--персики--peaches
    Please correct my errors! Thanks.
    Corrigez-moi, s'il vous plaît! Merci.
    Пoжaлуйcтa, иcпpaвьтe мoи oшибки! Бoльшoe cпaсибo.

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    Re: All Slavic languages: False friends

    Quote Originally Posted by werrr View Post
    stick - laska × láska - love
    Laska in Polish can also mean "a chick" (very attractive woman)

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    Re: All Slavic languages: False friends

    stick - laska × láska - love
    Quote Originally Posted by Marijka View Post
    Laska in Polish can also mean "a chick" (very attractive woman)
    ласка (Russian) - caressing (noun), affection, gentle handling (of kids for example)
    Анатолий أناتولي 阿纳托利 アナトーリー 아나톨리 अनातोली อานาโตลี آناتولی

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    Re: All Slavic languages: False friends

    Quote Originally Posted by Anatoli View Post
    ласка (Russian) - caressing (noun), affection, gentle handling (of kids for example)
    łaska (Polish) = mercy (Eng.)

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    Re: All Slavic languages: False friends

    Most Russians will have heard that трус doesn't mean 'coward' in Belarusian, it means 'rabbit'. But трусы means both 'rabbits' and 'pants'! Люстра(n) means 'large mirror' in Belarusian - and in Russian люстра(f) stands for 'chandelier'.

    The Polish word for 'shop' is sklep which sounds somewhat discomforting to me because склеп is 'cellar' in Belarusian and 'crypt, burial vault' in Russian.
    Last edited by cyanista; 15th September 2006 at 11:56 AM.


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    Re: All Slavic languages: False friends

    In Croatian, ''laska'' is a verb, the third person present form of ''laskati'' (to flatter).

    Also, the Slovenian-Croatian trudna-tired and trudna-pregnant false friend reminds me of embarazada(Spanish for pregnant)-embarassed. But, yeah, in Croatian there are a lot of archaic/poetic usages of trudna-tired.

    ''Spokoj'' also means ''calmness'' and ''quietness'' in Croatian, so it's very similar to Polish. ''Pokoj'' is mostly used in the phrase ''pokoj mu duši'' (may he rest in peace), and the deceased are called ''pokojnici''.
    Last edited by !netko!; 16th September 2006 at 1:57 PM.

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    Re: All Slavic languages: False friends

    Another fine example is the Russian/Bulgarian term "булка"/"bulka", "young woman" in BG & "cookie" (sweet white bread roll)" in Russian

    Другой прелестный пример Русское/Балгарское слово "булка", "девушка" в балгарском, и ... "булка" по Русски.

    Alas, Wikibooks has a big huge list of slavic false friends on
    http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/False_F...of_the_Slavist

    Кстате, В викикниги есть большой список славянских ... ... Фолзфрэндсов
    http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/False_F...of_the_Slavist

    Quote Originally Posted by Anatoli View Post
    The one I like with Russian vs Czech:

    pozor - attention
    позор - disgrace

    EDIT:
    Similarly "позориште" in Serbian means theatre, in Russian "позорище" - is disgrace, like позор but emotionally stronger and more colloquial.

    (Serbian "шт" maps to the Russian "щ" in most words; - in Bulgarian the letter щ is pronounced as шт but "theatre" is "театър".)
    That's one of the funnier ones. I first heared it in a Czech train station. It seemed they loudly asked for disgrace before each announcation - and i thought it was some way to excuse for a train comming late or something. A theatre scene vs. great disgrace/shame is also hilarous!

    Это одно из более весёлых. В первые я это услышал на Чешском вокзале. Казалось будь-то бы они громко просили позора перед каждой передачей - я-дурак подумал они прошчения просят, за то, что у них поезда постоянно опаздавают. Театральная сцена пр. позорища тоже просто умора!
    Last edited by übermönch; 16th September 2006 at 3:50 PM.
    אַ שפּראַך איז אַ דיאַלעקט מיט אַן אַרמיי און פֿלאָט

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