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Thread: Emphatic Reduplication In Languages

  1. #1
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    Emphatic Reduplication In Languages

    North Indian languages, esp Hindi - has expressions/units of words that repeat for emphasis / intensity

    jaldi-jaldi (quickly quickly)

    ahista-ahista (slowly slowly)

    baar-baar (again and again)

    zara-zara (a little)


    Is this limited to Hindi or are there other languages where this is used ?

    Thanks in advance and hope this is the right place for this question
    kasrav

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    This is very typical for the Philippine language Tagalog as well.

    But it might be that this is present in nearly all languages, and that the languages differ only in the extent of using this. I think of things like the English exclamation hush hush!, or German na na! or Swiss German so so! French vite vite, and so on.

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    Quote Originally Posted by Kasrav View Post
    jaldi-jaldi (quickly quickly)
    ahista-ahista (slowly slowly)
    baar-baar (again and again)
    zara-zara (a little)
    Basically, three of them are Persian. The fourth, Baar-baar seems to be made of Persian baar (time, turn) but not used in Persian. This structure is used frequently in Persian with both adjectives and nouns. Although, Indian has probably developed this structure independently. Anyway, does this structure exist with genuine Hindi words?

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    baar is one of the words that's both genuine Hindi and Persian.

    Other repeated words:

    pal-pal = every moment

    khaa-khaa = eat eat

    jaa-jaa = go go

    English has hurry, hurry; no, no; very, very, etc. I'm sure there are many more in Hindi, English, and practically every language.
    Last edited by Wolverine9; 1st July 2013 at 9:36 AM.

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    In Hebrew לאט לאט /le'át le'át/ "slowly slowly" is often used.

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    Turkish, 'sık sık' - often.
    Greek, 'σιγά σιγά' - slowly

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    Modern Greek has it too. I've read that we adopted it from Turkish but I just can't remember where I read it or if there's a term for the phenomenon.
    Λίγο λίγο (little), σιγά σιγά (slowly) etc. We even have one in Turkish: Γιαβάς-γιαβάς (slowly). I think in Turkish it's writen yavash yavash but I don't really speak the language I'm afraid.
    “I like work: it fascinates me. I can sit and look at it for hours.” ~ Jerome K. Jerome

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    In Czech we have:

    1) lexicalized repetitions/reduplications of words (rather rare phenomenon in Czech), the new word has different meaning than its single component:

    až = up to, until;
    ažaž = more than enough, too much;
    tak = so, this way;
    taktak = barely, hardly;

    2) syntactical repetitions (either syndetic or asyndetic) for stylistic or rhetoric purposes:

    Bilbo šel a šel a šel, až došel na konec temného lesa. (syndetic, with a conjunction)
    Bilbo went and went and went, until he reached the end of the dark forest.
    Bilbo a marché longtemps, longtemps, longtemps, avant ... (asyndetic, without a conjunction)
    Last edited by bibax; 2nd July 2013 at 9:14 AM.

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    Quote Originally Posted by ireney View Post
    M We even have one in Turkish: Γιαβάς-γιαβάς (slowly). I think in Turkish it's writen yavash yavash but I don't really speak the language I'm afraid.
    See 'yavaş yavaş'.

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    Quote Originally Posted by ireney View Post
    Modern Greek has it too. I've read that we adopted it from Turkish but I just can't remember where I read it or if there's a term for the phenomenon.
    Λίγο λίγο (little), σιγά σιγά (slowly) etc. We even have one in Turkish: Γιαβάς-γιαβάς (slowly). I think in Turkish it's writen yavash yavash but I don't really speak the language I'm afraid.
    And what about "γιαλό γιαλό"?

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    Ben Jamin, yes, well, expressions like "γιαλό γιαλό" (shore) or "πόρτα πόρτα" (door), "τοίχο τοίχο" etc have a slightly different meaning. They are not duplicated for emphasis per se. It is to show hmmm continuity? consistency? I don't know how to put it.
    If a ship is going γιαλό γιαλό it hugs the shore never, ever going far from it. If someone is making enquiries πόρτα πόρτα he's not leaving a single door un-knocked. Someone moving τοίχο τοίχο is keeping his back constantly pressed against a wall. And so on and so forth.
    “I like work: it fascinates me. I can sit and look at it for hours.” ~ Jerome K. Jerome

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    Quote Originally Posted by tFighterPilot View Post
    In Hebrew לאט לאט /le'át le'át/ "slowly slowly" is often used.
    Also "יום יום" (yom yom) = every day. "לילה לילה" (layla layla) = every night.

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    Sooo apparently Japanese has the highest number of these "repeated words" but with many different types of words represented:
    人々 people, many people (number)
    ふわふわ /mimetic word/ (emphasis)
    だんだん progressively (emphasis)
    徐々 increasingly, progressively (emphasis, repetition)
    なかなか quite, well (emphasis)
    そろそろ now, about now (mimetic?)
    様々 many, varied (number, repetition, array)
    我々 we, us (number, archaic)
    のろのろslowly, creeping (emphasis)
    久々 for a long time (emphasis, number, duration)
    ……………
    A lot of words that are classified as gitaigo (擬態語, mimetic words) and giongo (擬音語, onomatopoeia) are double words like this. As are many other words in Japanese. It's also a useful way of constructing new words!

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    Polish has "dawno, dawno, temu"(long time ago) as a standard element of legends and fairy tales.

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    We should distinguish between the lexicalized repetitions and the syntactical repetitions that serve for stylistic purposes (quite common in all languages).

    Example of a syndetic repetition in English:

    He understood that he had a problem, but he drank and drank and drank (= he kept drinking) until he lost his job, and finally until he drank himself to death.

    Example of an asyndetic repetition:

    Once upon a time, a long long time ago (= a very long time ago), when mice ran after cats and lions were chased by rats ...

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    Quote Originally Posted by bibax View Post
    We should distinguish between the lexicalized repetitions and the syntactical repetitions that serve for stylistic purposes (quite common in all languages).

    Example of a syndetic repetition in English:

    He understood that he had a problem, but he drank and drank and drank (= he kept drinking) until he lost his job, and finally until he drank himself to death.

    Example of an asyndetic repetition:

    Once upon a time, a long long time ago (= a very long time ago), when mice ran after cats and lions were chased by rats ...
    Which of them is a lexicalized repetition, and which is a syntactical repetition?

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    Quote Originally Posted by Ben Jamin View Post
    Which of them is a lexicalized repetition, and which is a syntactical repetition?
    Both of bibax's examples from English are syntactic repetitions (reduplication). His point from #15 is that there is a difference between reduplications which are there for stylistic purposes and the reduplications that serve to express grammatical functions like plurality or verbal aspect etc. There are languages where this is the only means to express these concepts. Most (if not all) European languages are of very little interest with respect to reduplication.

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    thank you all. Ireney 's post # 11 above on various "purposes" of repetition is what I wanted to check as well but could not express....sometimes it is not emphasis but a sense of continuity chalte chalte (walking walking) for instance would render perhaps as "As <subject> was walking" and not walking very intensely :-) are there any specialist terms for these functional uses...?

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    Quote Originally Posted by Kasrav View Post
    thank you all. Ireney 's post # 11 above on various "purposes" of repetition is what I wanted to check as well but could not express....sometimes it is not emphasis but a sense of continuity chalte chalte (walking walking) for instance would render perhaps as "As <subject> was walking" and not walking very intensely :-) are there any specialist terms for these functional uses...?
    In Tamil Grammer its called Irattai KiLavi (doubling words), often the word/sound is meaningless individually and to represent the repeated nature of the action.
    thiru thiru ena mulithaan - He looked thiru thiru
    kudu kudu ena Odinaan - He ran kudu kudu
    kuru kuru ena paarvai - He looked kuru kuru
    mala mala ena mudithaan - he finished mala mala (fast doing)
    vala vala ena pEsinaan - He talked vala vala (talkative)
    viru viru ena nadai - walk viru viru (fast walking)
    thaga thaga ena minnum - shining thaga thaga
    mani maniyaai ena ezhuthum - writing mani mani,(beautifull like beads arranged)
    a lot more is there...

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    Re: repeating words for emphasis - indian languages-other egs ?

    thank you thank you :-)

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