البدل

Discussion in 'العربية (Arabic)' started by asadxyz, Mar 15, 2008.

  1. asadxyz Senior Member

    USA
    English
    Dear respected Cherine
    In one of the threads you have put that :

    While books on grammar do not support this view (as far as I can guess) :

    شرح الآجرومية - حسن حفظي - (ج 1 / ص 230)
    فالبدل لابد أن يأخذ حركة إعراب المبدل منه رفعاً ونصباً وجراً وجزماً أيضاً

    Because البدل is one type of توابع which are always similar in اعراب

    اَلخاتِمةُ: فِي التَّوَابِعِ
    اِعْلَمْ أنَّ الأسْمَاءَ المُعْرَبَةَ الَّتِي مَرَّ ذِكْرُهَا كَانَ إعْرَابُها بِالأصَالَةِ ، بِأنْ دَخَلَتْها العَوَامِلُ ، فَأوْجَبَتْ فِيها الرَّفْعَ ، والنَّصبَ ، وَالجَرَّ بِلا واسِطَةٍ ، وقَدْ يَكُونُ إعْرابُ الاسْمِ بِتَبَعِيَّةِ مَا قَبْلَهُ ، و يُسْمَّى ( التَّابِعَ) لأنَّهُ يَتْبَعُ مَا قَبْلَهُ فِي الإعْرَابِ.
    فَالتّابِعُ ، كَلُّ ثّانٍ مُعْرَبٍ بِأعْرَابِ سَابِقِهِ مِنْ جهةٍ واحِدَةٍ 59، وَالتَّوَابِعُ خَمْسَةٌ :
    1-النَّعْتُ .
    2-اَلعَطْفُ بِالحُرُوفِ .
    3-اَلتَّأكِيدُ .
    4-عَطْفُ البَيَانِ .
    5-اَلبَدَلُ .
    Ref: hadayatun Nahw
    "Albadal" has different types.

    اَلقِسْمُ الرّابِعُ : اَلبَدَلُ
    اَلبَدَلُ ، تَابِعٌ نُسِبَ إلَيهِ مَا نُسِبَ إلى مَتْبُوعِهِ وهُوَ المَقْصُودُ بِالنِّسْبَةِ دُونَ مَتْبُوعِهِ.
    وأقْسامُ البَدَلِ أَرْبَعَةٌ :
    1-بَدَلُ الكُلِّ مِنَ الكُلِّ ، وَهُوَ ، مَا كَانَ مَدْلُولُهُ تَمامَ مَدْلُولِ المَتْبُوعِ ، نَحْوُ (جَاءَنِي صَالِحٌ أخُوكَ).
    2-بَدَلُ البَعْضِ مِنَ الكُلِّ ، وهُوَ ، مَا كَانَ مَدْلُولُهُ جُزءَ مَدلولِ المَتْبُوعِ، نَحْوُ ( قَرَأْتَ الكِتابَ اَوَّلَهُ ).
    3-بَدَلُ الاشتِمالِ ، وهوَ ، مَا كَانَ مَدْلُولُهُ مُتَعَلِّقاً بِالمَتْبُوعِ نَحْوُ ( سُلِبَ زَيْدٌ ثَوْبُهُ ، وأَعْجَبَنِي عَلَيٌّ عِلْمُهُ ) .
    4-بَدَلُ الغَلَطِ ، وهُوَ ، مَا يُذْكَرُ بَعْدَ الغَلَطِ ، نحْوُ ( جَاءَنِي زَيْدٌ جَعْـفَـرٌ، ورَأَيْتُ بَغلاً حِماراً .
    Reference : Hadayatun Nahw.
    In all of these examples مبدل and مبدل منه have same اعراب not different.

    In which category would you like to place هذا المسجد of "albadal" instead of considering them as "ismul ishaarah /Mushaarun alahy" ?
     
  2. cherine

    cherine Moderator

    Alexandria, Egypt
    Arabic (Egypt).
    Dear Asad,
    First allow me to add the link to the thread you're referring to.
    Which is exactly the case with إمام هذا المسجدِ : al-masjidi is maksuur "instead of" (= badalan min) "haadha".
    Again, this is the same case we're having here. المسجد is badal min هذا .
    First, نحن لا نعرب الاسم التالي لاسم الإشارة على أنه مشار إليه، بل نعربه حسب موقعه في الجملة (sorry, don't know how to say this in English, but I'm sure you understand).
    For example:
    هذا طالبٌ مجتهدٌ
    haadha: اسم إشارة مبني في محل رفع مبتدأ
    taalibun: خبر المبتدأ مرفوع بالضمة
    mujtahidun: adj.

    Now I checked my grammar book, and I found this rule:
    إذا وقع بعد اسم الإشارة اسم اقترن بـ"ال" أُعرب الاسم المقترن بـ"ال" على أنه بدل لاسم الإشارة وبالتالي يأخذ حكمه
    So, if instead of taalib we say at-taalib, we'll have this:
    هذا الطالبُ مجتهدٌ
    haadha: اسم إشارة مبني في محل رفع مبتدأ
    at-taalibu: بدل لاسم الإشارة مرفوع بالضمة
    mujtahidun: خبر المبتدأ مرفوع بالضمة
     
  3. asadxyz Senior Member

    USA
    English
    Dear Cherine
    I agree with your post except the red highlighted one which I could not understand.
    Use of word "instead" means that
    1:Ismul Ishaarah is not going to get the "kasra" at the end but instead of this "Musharun Alay " is going to get it.

    [ Note :
    1. In fact though this i3raab in ismul ishaarah is not explicit because this is indeclinable but it is definitely in hidden form.
    2. Ismul ishaarah and Mushaarun Alay are always similar in "i3raab".]
    Why are you using the word "instead" ? and negating the hidden change in i3raab of ismul-ishaarah?
     
  4. cherine

    cherine Moderator

    Alexandria, Egypt
    Arabic (Egypt).
    Dear Asad,
    I used "instead of" as a loose translation of the word badal. Besides, it is true that ism al-ishaara doesn't get the kasra and that the mushaarun ilayhi is the word that get it (in the case of its being a badal of course).

    1- The fact that the i3raab of ismilishaara is not apparent is only due to the fact that it's مبني but this doesn't change the fact that it has its own i3raab according to موقعه في الجملة.
    2- اسم الإشارة والمشار إليه are not always similar in i3raab, it's the case only when المشار إليه is a definite word, and in this case it's a badal and takes the same علامة (like in the sentence we're having.
    But in a sentence like هذا طالبٌ مجتهد ism al-ishaara is a mubtada2 and طالبٌ is a khabar, not a badal, and is not similar in the i3raab.

    As I said above, I'm using the word "instead" as a loose translation of the word "badal".

    I'm sorry I don't understand what you mean by "negating the hidden change in i3raab of ismul-ishaarah?" :confused:
     
  5. asadxyz Senior Member

    USA
    English
    Dear Cherin thank you very much for clarification.
    But now there are other problems .
    You said :
    How can you say that ismul-ishaarah and Mushaarun Alayh are not always similar in i3raab.These are always.Please provide some evidenc or example.
    The example you gave :

    This example is not that of ismula ishaarah and Mushaarun Alayh rather ismul ishaarah(mubtada) and Khabar as you said.
    Secondly ,even in this case
    هذا = marfooh being Mubtadaa
    طالبٌ = marfooh being khabar and showing by explicit i3raab.
    So they are similar in i3raab. ,These are different only in "ta3reef/tankeer' not in i3raab.

    Thirdly "mushaarun Alay" is always definite which is done by
    1. Either prefixing AL -
    2. Or by making it Mudhaaf of another noun.
    It is never "indefinite" (Nakrah)
     
  6. cherine

    cherine Moderator

    Alexandria, Egypt
    Arabic (Egypt).
    Dear Asad,
    I think the problem is that we're talking about the same thing in different words.
    What you call المشار إليه is apparently البدل (the definite word following اسم الإشارة) while, to my knowledge at least, a مشار إليه is any word designated by an اسم إشارة .

    Anyway, let's put it this way:
    - The indefinite word following اسم الإشارة is parsed تُعرب according to its موقعها في الجملة
    - The definite word following اسم الإشارة is parsed تُعرب as badal.


    I don't know how you call them similar. Is it just because they're both marfuu3? To my knowledge they're not because a مبتدأ is different from a خبر regardless of the tashkeel they take.
     

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