• Frequently discussed topics - Gli argomenti più discussi •

Discussion in 'Italian-English' started by Paulfromitaly, Apr 27, 2009.

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  1. Paulfromitaly

    Paulfromitaly MODerator

    Brescia (Italy)
    Italian
    In questo sticky troverete una raccolta di discussioni che riguardano gli argomenti più gettonati nel forum English - Italian.
    Se avete dei dubbi su uno di questi argomenti, leggete attentamente le vecchie discussioni invece di aprirne una nuova a riguardo di un tema già lungamente discusso, grazie.

    Se ritenete che una discussione non presente in questo elenco dovrebbe essere inclusa, contattate un moderatore del forum English-Italian.



    In this sticky you'll find a collection of threads dealing with the most popular topics in the Italian - English forum.
    If you're having trouble with one of these topics, please read the old threads rather than open a new one on a subject that has already been discussed at length. Thanks.

    If there is a particular thread you feel should be included in this list, please contact any one of the Italian-English forum moderators.

    Paulfromitaly; Angel.Aura; stella_maris_74; Tegs; Odysseus54; Matrap
     
    Last edited: Jul 6, 2014
  2. Paulfromitaly

    Paulfromitaly MODerator

    Brescia (Italy)
    Italian
    NB: Ci sono già letteralmente decine di discussioni sulla durartion form (Da quanto tempo? SINCE/FOR ) e sul "future in the past". Abbiamo raccolto le più significative in questi due thread: leggeteli invece di aprire l'ennesimo thread sullo stesso argomento!

    Duration form: da quanto tempo..? Since/for
    Future in the past/condizionale passato


    Tempi verbali - Verb tenses


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uses_of_English_verb_forms

    Past simple - present perfect
    Present Perfect o Present Continous?
    present perfect vs present perfect continuous
    Present/Past perfect (continuous)
    Today - present perfect or simple past?
    Will - be going to
    I will... (mere possibility) / I'm going to... (firm intention)



    Imperfetto - passato prossimo
    Imperfetto, Passato Prossimo e Trapassato
    Passato Prossimo vs. Passato Remoto
    Passato remoto / imperfetto
    futuro semplice e futuro anteriore
    Imperfetto/passato prossimo/condizionale passato etc
    Agreement of pronouns and past participles


    Letter writing - Scrittura di lettere

    Letter or email opening and closing phrases
    Abbreviations of salutations
    To whom it may concern
    Letter and email endings
    Cordiali / Distinti saluti
    Terminare una lettera/messaggio in inglese
    Inizio di una lettera

    Espressioni di gratitudine - Expressions of gratitude

    Grazie mille
    Grazie di/per
    Grazie a

    Grazie a tutti -grazie di tutto
    Grazie lo stesso - grazie comunque
    Vorrei ringraziare tutte le persone che
    non so come ringraziarti

    sono io che vi ringrazio
    Thank you very much
    I want to thank you...
    I'd like to thank you for the gift
    I can't thank you enough
    I can't even begin to thank you


    Argomenti generali - General topics

    >> Topic summary: Numbers - speaking, saying, writing in full
    Date format - how to write and read dates in different parts of the world.

    Chatspeak/SMS language (Italian): ke, x, nn, dx, sx, thx, pls etc..
    SMS language/ chatspeak in English
    Even though vs. Even if
    Have gotten vs have got
    Have vs have got
    I've got to vs I must
    I haven't got vs I don't have
    used to vs would
    Ought to vs should
    ain't
    Some vs Any
    be supposed to
    Can vs Be able to
    May, might, can, could
    should - should have - would - must - have to - could - could have
    must - have to
    What am I to do? - to be + infinitive
    wage vs salary
    I wish I was/were
    If I was/were you
    Looking forward to meeting you
    I can't wait
    Feel like
    be up to
    What are you up to?
    what vs which
    to like to vs to like -ing
    as...as
    Whether or not
    Either vs neither
    Must vs. must have to
    To have something done
    Rise vs Raise
    Is Dead vs. Has Died
    He has gone vs. He is gone
    Everyone, someone: his, her or their?
    Anything vs Something
    Past participle gender agreement
    whether vs. if
    Did - do - does come rafforzativo
    how to write a date
    th - st - rd - nd (ordinal numbers)
    client vs. customer
    As vs like
    out-eat - il prefisso OUT con un verbo
    out-teach: OUT + verbo
    What does X mean? vs. What X means?
    the X out of
    Were they the latter - Inversion in English (Vedi anche l'ultimo post di questo thread)


     
    Last edited: Jun 9, 2015
  3. Paulfromitaly

    Paulfromitaly MODerator

    Brescia (Italy)
    Italian
    Termini che hanno una traduzione diversa in American English e in British English - NEW!!

    Figo, figata, figa
    ce - ci - ne
    ci, ne
    lì and là/vi and ci
    Qui, qua, lì and là
    stare - essere
    Farsi vivo
    Addirittura
    Ci mancherebbe
    Ognuno VS ciascuno
    meglio vs migliore
    Non vedo l'ora di riabbracciarti
    non vedo l'ora di vederti!
    Non vedo l'ora che inizi il concerto
    's - genitivo sassone
    genitivo sassone
    Genitivo sassone/possessive case con il plurale o nomi che terminano per S
    Sayings - modi di dire
    tu - lei - voi
    Voi vs. Lei
    sentirsela di - sentirsi di
    mi raccomando
    si impersonale
    prendersela (con)
    essere all'altezza di
    vale la pena (di)
    non vale la pena
    Da quanto tempo..?
    andare a/andare in
    e or ed in front of vowels
    Tanto...quanto
    E vs ed
    Anche perché
    use of capitals for lei, voi in formal letter writing
    Egli/lui, ella/lei, esso, essa
    Formato della data in inglese
    muro vs. mura
    Il Dlgs n. 196/03 - trattamento dei dati personali
    fare caso/ non fare caso a
    avere vs. essere as auxiliary verbs
    per quanto riguarda
    Importante per
    Grade Levels - livelli di istruzione (sistema scolastico)
    i soldati avrebbero reagito... (condizionale passato nel discorso indiretto)
    ragazzi (di sessi diversi)
    Ragazzo vs. fidanzato
    Fare/avere senso

    Love, kisses and greetings

    Birthday, Holidays, Anniversaries - "I LOVE YOU" and other Frequently Asked LOVE Questions
    Ti voglio bene vs. ti amo
    Kisses
    Baci, Bacio or Bacioni
    Endearment terms
    I miss you, my love
    Happy New Year
    Kind and best regards
    l'occasione è gradita per porgervi i nostri più cordiali saluti
    Welcome to (place)
    Stammi bene

    Le abbreviazioni nella lingua italiana - Abbreviations in Italian


     
    Last edited: Jun 9, 2015
  4. Paulfromitaly

    Paulfromitaly MODerator

    Brescia (Italy)
    Italian
    Come compilare un CV (English and Italian!)

    http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu/it/documents/curriculum-vitae



    Grade levels & educational qualifications - Livelli di istruzione e titoli di studio

    (Please DO read these threads before asking a new question - Leggete le discussioni precedenti prima di aprirne una nuova per favore.)



    Grade Levels - livelli di istruzione (sistema scolastico)

    110 e lode
    Esame di Stato - 100 e lode
    trenta e lode
    2.1 degree and at least 260 UCAS points
    2.1 honours degree
    A primary honours degree award....
    Advanced university degree
    Art/Letter degree
    away from the degree of angle greater than
    bachelor degree
    Bachelor of Science Degree
    class of degree: qualified
    degree and higher degree
    Degree Class
    degree classifications, 2:ii
    Good honours degree
    Grade point, degree and major
    Honours Degree
    Honours degree in Social Sciences with economics major
    I obtained 4 A-Levels in 2004 and I am studying for a degree in Spanish & Italian
    master degree
    master VS master degree
    Master's degree in multicultural assessment
    masters degree educated individuals
    modern languages degree
    non-degree course
    post-university degree
    Specialized degree
    Abilitato alla professione, laurea magistrale
    certificato di laurea
    Classe di laurea
    Commissione di Laurea
    conferire la laurea
    conseguire una laurea
    Conseguita la laurea di primo livello
    corso di laurea a libero accesso - numero programmato
    Corso di laurea in educazione motoria preventiva
    corso di laurea tecnico di radiologia medica
    corso di perfezionamento post laurea
    data della discussione (Della tesi di laurea)
    Diploma di Laurea (Pre 1999 Bologna System)
    Diploma di laurea in chimica
    Diploma di laurea in economia aziendale
    domanda di laurea
    doppia laurea
    esame di laurea in debito
    ha superato l'esame di laurea in...
    Ho conseguito la laurea triennale
    intercorso di laurea in Ingegneria Civile
    Iscritto al secondo anno di Laurea Specialistica in X presso l'Università X
    llaurea
    Laurea breve
    Laurea conseguita presso...
    Laurea di II livello in archeologia
    laurea di primo livello
    laurea di secondo livello o vecchio ordinamento
    laurea il cui ordinamento è antecedente al DM 509/99
    Laurea in architettura
    Laurea in Arte e Scienze dello Spettacolo
    Laurea in Economia dei beni culturali e della comunicazione
    Laurea in Economia e Commercio
    laurea in Economia e legislazione per le aziende
    Laurea in ingegneria informatica
    laurea in ingegneria informatica con indirizzo automazione
    laurea in legge
    Laurea in lettere
    laurea in lingue
    Laurea in Scienze e Tecnologie dell'arte della moda e dello spettacolo
    Laurea in Tecniche di Laboratorio Biomedico
    laurea magistrale a ciclo unico
    Laurea magistrale in giurisprudenza
    laurea quadriennale in fisica
    Laurea specialistica
    Laurea Specialistica in Economia e Direzione delle Imprese
    laurea specialistica in storia dell'arte
    Laurea triennale, laurea specialistica, master, dottorato.
    Laurea Vecchio Ordinamento ? Nuovo Ordinamento
    Voto di laurea
     
    Last edited: Jun 19, 2015
  5. Paulfromitaly

    Paulfromitaly MODerator

    Brescia (Italy)
    Italian
    Conferimento di un diploma
    conseguire un diploma
    Conseguito diploma/in corso di conseguimento
    Course Certificate, Graduate Certificate or Graduate Diploma
    Devi essere in possesso di un qualunque diploma di scuola superiore
    Diploma Bartender
    Diploma come perito meccanico
    Diploma d'Onore
    diploma di abilitazione all'esercizio della professione
    diploma di contabilità
    Diploma di geometra
    diploma di interprete e traduttore
    Diploma di Laurea (Pre 1999 Bologna System)
    Diploma di laurea in chimica
    Diploma di laurea in economia aziendale
    Diploma di liceo classico
    diploma di liceo linguistico
    diploma di liuto
    diploma di maturità
    diploma di maturità artistica
    diploma di maturità classica
    diploma di maturità scientifica
    Diploma di Odontotecnico
    Diploma di Operatore dei servizi di cucina
    diploma di operatore dell'impresa turistica
    Diploma di Perito Chimico
    diploma di perito commerciale
    Diploma di Perito Fisico Industriale
    diploma di perito tecnico aeronautico
    diploma di pianoforte
    Diploma di Ragioneria Perito Programmatore
    diploma di scuola alberghiera
    diploma di segretaria d'azienda
    Diploma di specializzazione in Progettazione per lo Sviluppo
    diploma di tecnico dei servizi turistici
    Diploma in ragioneria corrispondente in lingue estere
    Diploma in teoria e solfeggio
    diploma liceo socio psico pedagogico
    Diploma magistrale
    Diploma Nautico di Coperta
    diploma parauniversitario
    Diploma ragioneria
    Diploma Ragioniere Perito commerciale
    Diploma rilasciato il
    diploma tecnico di infermieristica
    diploma, MSc, LLM, MBA and PhD
    graduation diploma
    Higher Diploma
    Licenza Media, Diploma di Maturità
    M/T. su diploma di maturità
    pergamena del diploma di master
    Postgraduate Diploma in Human Development
    Voto diploma

    scuola media superiore
    scuola media (secondaria di primo grado)
     
    Last edited: Nov 13, 2011
  6. Paulfromitaly

    Paulfromitaly MODerator

    Brescia (Italy)
    Italian
    I hope + quale tempo verbale?

     
    Last edited: Nov 13, 2011
  7. Paulfromitaly

    Paulfromitaly MODerator

    Brescia (Italy)
    Italian
    Come tradurre correttamente il tempo presente italiano in inglese:
     
    Last edited: Jan 6, 2012
  8. Paulfromitaly

    Paulfromitaly MODerator

    Brescia (Italy)
    Italian
    L'uso dell'inversione in inglese



    In statement it is usual for the verb to follow the subject, but sometimes this word order is reversed.

    We can refer to this as inversion. There are two main types of inversion:

    when the verb comes before the subject (optional inversion)

    In the doorway stood her father. (or …her father stood.)

    • when the auxiliary comes before the subject and the rest of the verb phrase follows the subject (inversion is usually necessary)

    Rarely had he seen such a sunset. (not Rarely he had see …)

    Inversion brings about fronting , the re-ordering of information in a sentence to give emphasis in a particular place. Often this causes an element to be postponed until later in the sentence, focusing attention on it.

    Inversion after negative adverbials


    When we begin a sentence with a negative adverb or adverbial phrase, we sometimes have to change the usual word order of subject and verb (often using an auxiliary verb) because we want to emphasise the meaning of the adverb. We use inversion when we move a negative adverb which modifies the verb (never, nowhere, not only, hardly etc.) to the beginning of a sentence. For example:

    I had never seen so many people in one room. (= normal word order)

    Never had I seen so many people in one room. (= inversion)

    There are adverbs and adverbial expressions with a negative, restrictive or emphatic meaning, which are followed by inversion when placed first in a sentence. The most common adverbs ad adverbial expressions with negative, restrictive or emphatic meaning that are followed be inversion are:


    Seldom, Rarely, Little, Nowhere, Nor even one, In no way
    Scarcely/Hardly/Barely … when, No sooner … than, Not only … but (also)
    On no occasion/account/condition, In/Under no circumstances
    Only after, Only later, Only once, Only in this way, Only by,
    Only then, Only when, Only if, Not till/until, Never, Never
    before, Not since, Neither/Not/So, Well (formal) etc:


    ‘I like chicken’, ‘So do I ’.

    Well did he remember the night the earthquake struck.
    On no occasion was the girl allowed to stay out late.
    Never had he had such a terrifying experience.
    Little did he know what his decision would lead to.


    • Time relationships

    We use inversion:

    1. after ‘negative’ adverbs which emphasise a time relation at the beginning of a sentence:

    No sooner had I put the phone down than it rung again. Hardly / Scarcely / Barely had I got my breath back when it was time to go again. Seldom do we have goods returned to us because they are faulty.

    2. after phases that use not:

    Not until he apologies will I speak to him again Not since I was little have I had so much fun. Not for one minute do I imagine they’ll come back. Not once was she at home when I phoned.

    3. after some time phrases that use only + a time expression or only + prepositional phrase:

    Only after several weeks did she begin to recover.
    Only later did she realise what had happened.
    Only then did he remember he hadn’t got his keys.
    Only when I’ve finished this will I be able to think about anything else.
    Only in the last few days has the truth started to emerge.
    Only by keeping a signal-fire burning did the woman manage to alert her rescuers.
    Only later didn’t she realise that she’d been given the wrong change.
    Only once did I go to the opera the whole time I was in Italy.
    Only by chance had Jameson discovered where the birds were nesting.
    Only in this way was she able to complete the report by the deadline.

    Note: Only after, only by, only if, only when, not until/till when placed at the beginning of the sentence for emphasis, require the inversion of the subject and the auxiliary verb in the main clause:


    Only after all her guests had left did she wash the dishes.
    Only by standing on a chair could he reach the shelf.
    Not till the last guest had left were we able to relax.
    Not until I saw him did I remember we had met before.
    Not until did I see him I remembered we had met before.


    • Frequency

    We also use inversion after ‘negative’ adverbs at the beginning of a sentence to emphasise:

    1. frequency:

    Never have I been so taken aback. Rarely do they fail to get away for a holiday. Seldom is that pop group out of the news. Hardly ever did he wear a suit.

    2. how infrequently things happen:


    Little did she realise what was about to happen.
    (= She didn’t realise or didn’t realise sufficiently)

    Nowhere was a replacement to be found.

    • General emphasis

    We often use inversion for general emphasis with phrases that use only:

    Only by patience and hard work will we find a solution.
    Only in this way do we stand any chance of success.

    We can also use it with phrases that use no:

    At no time would he admit that his team played badly.
    In no way should this be regarded as an end of the matter.
    On no account are you to repeat this to anyone.
    Under no circumstances can we accept the offer.

    • Not using inversion


    We use inversion when the adverb modifies the verb, and not when it modifies the noun:

    Rarely seen during the day, the badger is a famously shy animal. (= inversion)
    Hardly anyone knows about it. (= no inversion)
     
    Last edited: Aug 26, 2013
  9. Paulfromitaly

    Paulfromitaly MODerator

    Brescia (Italy)
    Italian
    Inversion in conditions

    • Conditional type 1

    In formal contexts we can omit "if" or other conditional words and start the sentence with should:

    Should you change your mind, please let me know.

    • Conditional type 2


    We use "be to" in a fairly formal way to express conditions. It suggests that the speaker has no influence over whether the condition will be fulfilled or not.
    Are to, am to and is to suggest the condition may be fulfilled.
    Were to (or, informally, was to) emphasises that the condition is very unlikely.
    Using the conditional if- clause is one way to express such conditions; however, we can omit if or other conditional words and start the sentence with were (but this is not possible with are):


    Were we to take on more staff, how could we afford to pay them?
    Were the vote to go against me, I’d resign.
    Were he to agree, he’d probably become the next coach.

    Were you a brighter fellow, you’d have gone along with the scheme.


    • Conditional type 3

    We use an Unreal Past Perfect in the if-clause when we are thinking about how things might have been different. In the conditional sentence we can omit if or other conditional words and start with Had:

    Had I believed her for one moment, I wouldn’t have refused to help.
    Had you told me earlier, I would/could/might have done something about it.

    We can also use conditional structures beginning with Were + perfect infinitive in formal English:

    Were you to have stopped and considered, you’d have seen the error of your ways.

    Inversion in result clauses

    The main ways of introducing result clauses in formal English are: so…(that), such…(that), to such a degree … We can use so + adjective at the beginning of a clause to give special emphasis to the adjective:

    So disgusted were they by the bad language (that) they walked out.

    We can use such + be at the beginning of a clause to emphasise the extent or degree of something:

    Such was our annoyance (that) we refused to cooperate further.

    We use inversion after neither or nor when these words begin a clause to introduce a negative addition to a previous negative clause or sentence:

    For some time after the explosion Jack couldn’t hear, and neither could he see.
    The council never wanted the new supermarket to be built, not did local residents.

    Inversion with come

    We can put first , next, now and then in front position with the verb come to introduce a new event, when the subject follows the verb. But if a comma (or an intonation break in speech) is used after first (etc.) the verb follows the subject. For example:

    At first there was silence. Then came a voice that I knew. (not Then a voice came …)
    At first there was silence. Then, a voice come that I knew.

    Inversion in spoken English

    In conversation we use Here comes + noun and There goes + noun, with inversion of verb and subject, to talk about things and people moving towards or away from the speaker:

    Here comes the bus. There goes Nigel Salter, the footballer.

    Here comes… is also used to say that something is going to happen soon, and There goes… is used when to talk about things (particularly money) being lost and to say that something (such as a phone or door bell) is ringing:

    Here comes lunch.
    My bike’s been stolen! There goes £100!
    There goes the phone. Can you answer it?


    Inversion with prepositions

    We can put the verb before the subject when we use adverbs expressing direction of movement, such as along, away, back, down, in, off, out, up with verbs such as come, fly, go. This pattern is found particularly in narrative, to mark a change in events:

    The door opened and in came the doctor. (less formally …and the doctor came in) As soon as I let go of the string, up went the balloon, high into the sky.

    (less formally …the balloon went up)

    Just when I thought I’d have to walk home, along came Miguel and he gave me a lift.

    (less formally …Miguel came along and gave me …)


    Inversion after as and than in comparisons

    In formal written language we commonly use inversion after as and than in comparisons:

    The cake was excellent, as was the coffee. (or …as the coffee was.)
    I believed, as did my colleagues, that the plan would work. (or …as my colleagues did…)

    Research shows that parents watch more television than do their children. (or …than their children do.)

    Notice that we don’t invert subject and verb after as or than when the subject is a pronoun:

    We now know a lot more about the Universe than we did ten years ago.(not …than did we ten years ago.)

    Inversion without auxiliary verb

    After adverbs and adverbial expressions:

    ‘There goes Tom!’

    but: ‘There he goes!’

    After the quoted words of direct speech:

    ‘I’ve just finished’,said Tom.

    but: ‘I’ve just finished’,he said.

    Useful structural conversions

    All the food had been prepared and the table had been laid as well.
    Not only had all the food been prepared but also the table had been laid.

    As soon as he was promoted, he started behaving arrogantly.
    No sooner had he been promoted than he started behaving arrogantly.
    Hardly/Scarcely had he been promoted when he started behaving arrogantly.

    He had no idea that the treasure had been hidden in his garden.
    Little did he know that the treasure had been hidden in his garden.

    She danced so much that she couldn’t walk afterwards
    So much did she dance that she couldn't walk afterwards.

    It was such a nice day that we went on an excursion.
    Such a nice day was it that we went on an excursion.

    They finished painting and then they moved into their new house.
    Only after they had finished painting did they move into their new house.

    If I were you, I would accept his offer.
    Were I you, I would accept his offer.

    If I had been told earlier, I would have reacted differently.
    Had I been told earlier, I would have reacted differently.

    If I (should) change my mind, I'll let you know.
    Should I change my mind, I'll let you know.

    She didn't phone me; she didn't drop me a line either.
    She didn't phone me nor did she drop me a line.
    She neither phoned me, nor did she drop me a line.

    She won't tell lies for any reason.
    On no account will she tell lies.

    The boy ran away.
    Away ran the boy!
     
    Last edited: Jul 24, 2012
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