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Discussion in '日本語 (Japanese)' started by mdbvma, Jul 21, 2013.

  1. mdbvma Senior Member

    Canada, English
    example 1=原野にありても、屋敷にいるときと同じように振る舞いなさい。
    example 2=今や氏はサンフランシスコに在りて、著述と講演とに寧日なく、米国をはじめ民主主義国家の取り来れる政策の過誤に対して声を大にし、その猛省を叫んでいる。

    Is "ありて" the same as "あって"? If so, in what circumstances does one use "ありて"?
  2. animelover Senior Member

    Eastern Germany
    The te-form is formed by taking the 連用形 of a verb and adding て, which is the 連用形 of the helper verb つ signifying affirmation (the opposite of negation.)

    This process gives us the forms 在りて, 為りて, ゐて, 梳きて, 薙ぎて, 齎して, 穿ちて, 噤みて, 屍にて, 呷りて, 躊躇ひて, 弄びて, as well as 餓ゑて, 狼狽へて, etc. (with the exceptions 乞ふて, 、問ふて, 厭ふて) Modern Japanese has contracted these form to 在って, 噤んで etc.

    The classical uncontracted forms can be used to sound archaic, poetric, some forms of very formal writing etc., and is used in older writing, and certain dialect (are there any?)
    Last edited: Jul 21, 2013
  3. polo111 Junior Member

    My opinion

    A1. the same
    A2. obsolete way on purpose, intended to express dignity. No specific circumstances, only a rhetoric (=no recommended to use normally).
    Last edited: Jul 22, 2013
  4. frequency

    frequency Senior Member

    Tokyo, Japan
    This is when the writer wants to make the sentence sound serious.
    Both are replaceable to いて, which is more common, usual. あって is more serious, and ありて・在りて is the most serious, stiffest. Why using ありて?I don't know. I guess that's writer's free choice.

    ありて is a classic, old Japanese word? I don't know well. But this is not the point I need not to care about very much.
  5. Tonky Senior Member

    It's just an archaic expression for いて, just like "giveth" for gives and "thou/thee..." for you in English.
  6. mdbvma Senior Member

    Canada, English
    Thank you for your replies.
  7. animelover Senior Member

    Eastern Germany
    Yes, perhaps it should be mentioned that ある could once be used for animated subjects as well (instead of いる)

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