Addiction, addicted

Discussion in 'All Languages' started by ThomasK, Feb 17, 2013.

  1. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    How do you say in your language that you have an addiction to/ are addicted to ... [, for example]?

    Dutch: verslaving/ verslaafd aan (slaaf = slave)
    - accro[ché ?] à, I think (attached, or something the like)
    - dépendant (de ? )
    German: -süchtig, I think (too strong a longing)
  2. ahmedcowon Senior Member


    addiction to: الإدمان على (al-edmaan 3ala)addicted to: مدمن على (modmen 3ala)
  3. Encolpius

    Encolpius Senior Member

    Praha (Prague)
    magyar (Hungarian)

    valaminek a rabja[lit.: to be the captive/prisoner of something]
  4. AquisM Senior Member

    Hong Kong
    Chinese: 上瘾/上癮 (Mandarin: shang yin; Cantonese: seung yan)

    The literal and most common meaning of the first character 上 is up/ascend, but it can be used (amongst others) in the sense of put on/develop. The second character means addiction.
  5. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    @ Ahmed: could you explain the -dm-n root?

    @AquisM: could you dwell upon this up/ ascend notion, I mean, on the link between that and the phenomenon of addiction? (Building up an addiction ???)
  6. AquisM Senior Member

    Hong Kong
    Mmm... I'm not sure. The thing is, many common characters, like this one, have a bunch of meanings, depending on context. While you can make a tenuous link here, we use this verb in 上厕所, which means 'to go to the toilet (厕所)', and I can't think of any connection with up/ascend here, unless you talk about the motion of getting on a toilet... :confused:
  7. Outsider Senior Member

    Portuguese (Portugal)
    In Portuguese

    addiction: vício, lit. "vice" (sometimes also adição, dependência)
    addicted: viciado
    drug addict: toxicodependente
    Last edited: Feb 17, 2013
  8. bibax Senior Member

    = addiction;
    závislý = addicted;
    from the verb záviseti na = to depend on, viseti = to hang, pendere;

    the Latin noun addictio is a legal term (= the awarding or adjudging of the judge);
    addictus = one who has been given up or made over as servant to his creditor;
    from the verb addicere = to give one's assent to a thing;
    Last edited: Feb 17, 2013
  9. apmoy70

    apmoy70 Senior Member

    In Greek:

    Addiction:: «Εθισμός» [eθi'zmos] (masc.) < ancient masc. noun «ἐθισμός» ĕtʰi'smŏs --> accustoming, habituation (AG), in MG addiction (only) < neut. noun «ἔθεος» ĕtʰĕŏs & «ἔθος» ĕtʰŏs (in MG ['eθos]) --> custom, habit (PIE *swedʰ-, custom; cf Lat. suescere > cōnsuēscō > Vulgar Lat. consuetudo > OF costume, Eng. custom; Proto-Germanic *sedu- > Ger. Sitte).
    Addicted: Aorist mediopassive participle «εθισμένος, -νη, -νο» [eθi'zmenos] (masc.), [eθi'zmeni] (fem.), [eθi'zmeno] (neut.).
    The addicted person is described with the suffix «-μανής» [-ma'nis] (masc. & fem.) as the second element in compounds expressing particular types of addictions < fem. noun «μανία» mă'niă --> frenzy (PIE base *men-, to think) e.g. «ερωτομανής» [erotoma'nis] (masc.) --> addicted to sexual pleasure (for males), «νυμφομανής» [nimphoma'nis] (fem.) --> addicted to sexual pleasure (for females), «τοξικομανής» [toksikoma'nis] (masc. & fem.) --> addicted to substances & «ναρκομανής» [narkoma'nis] (masc. & fem.) --> addicted to narcotics. For the latter, a modern (and more PC) name is «τοξικοεξαρτώμενος, -νη» [toksiko.eksar'tomenos] (masc.), [toksiko.eksar'tomeni] (fem.) --> substance-depended < v. «εξαρτώμαι» [eksar'tome] < ancient «ἐξαρτάομαι/ἐξαρτῶμαι» ĕksăr'tăŏmæ (uncontracted) / ĕksăr'tōmæ (contracted) --> to be hung upon, depend upon
    Last edited: Feb 17, 2013
  10. ahmedcowon Senior Member

    The دمن d-m-n root is used to give two meanings

    the verb دمن /damana/ means "to manure (fertilize using manures)" but this verb's usage is now very rare
    the noun "manure" is دمن /demn/ and the man who fertilizes using manures is مدمن /modammen/

    the verb أدمن /admana/ means "to addict"
    the noun "addiction" is إدمان /edmaan/ and the man who is addicted to something is مدمن /modmen/
  11. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Swedish: misbruk, misbrukare (abuse, abuser)
    Danish: afhængighed, afhængige (dependence, dependent)
    Norwegian: avhengighet, stoffmisbruker (dependence, "stuff"-abuser)

    I used Google T for this, but checked via sites...
    Last edited: Jun 11, 2016
  12. Holger2014 Senior Member

    In German, süchtig can often be used interchangeably with abhängig (Danish afhængig/-e), and it's hard to define the difference. Likewise, German Abhängigkeit can be replaced with Sucht. (German abhängig and Danish afhængig can also be translated as 'dependent').
    suchen (verb): to seek, to search, to look for
    Sucht (noun): obsession, addiction
    Droge (noun): drug (in German normally referrring to illegal drugs/substances)
    Drogensucht (noun): drug addiction
    süchtig (adjective): obsessive, addicted
    drogensüchtig (adjective): addicted to drugs
    Drogensüchtiger (noun): drug addict
    ab (preposition, prefix): ~ off
    hängen (verb): to hang
    abhängen (verb): to be addicted, to depend
    abhängig (adjective): to be addicted, dependent
    abhängig von: addicted to, dependent on, depending on
    drogenabhängig (adjective) ~ drug-addicted, addicted to drugs
    Drogenabhängiger (noun): drug addict
    Drogenabhängigkeit (noun): drug addiction

    gebrauchen (verb): to use
    missbrauchen (verb): to misuse, to abuse
    Drogenmissbrauch (noun): drug abuse
    af (preposition, prefix): ~ off
    hænge (verb): to hang
    afhænge (verb): to be addicted, (more often): to depend
    afhængig (adjective): addicted, dependent, depending
    afhængighed (noun): addiction, dependence

    As far as I know, expressions related to drug addiction (at least those expressions I've read and heard in the media) differ from the German pattern:

    mis- (prefix): ~ miss-
    bruge (verb): to use
    misbruge (verb): to misuse, to abuse
    misbrug (noun): misuse, abuse
    stof (noun): substance
    stofmisbrug (noun): substance abuse, drug abuse
    stofmisbruger (noun): substance abuser, drug abuser

    narko-: short form of narkotika, often used referring to illegal drugs
    narkoman (noun): drug addict (I think it's safe to say that narkoman sounds more informal than stofmisbruger)
    narkopoliti (noun): police unit in charge of drug-related crimes

    vane (noun): habit
    danne (verb): to form, to create
    vanedannende (adjective): habit-forming --> addictive
    Last edited: Jun 11, 2016
  13. 810senior

    810senior Senior Member

    中毒chuu-doku(hit-in poison) addiction, toxicosis
    中毒になるchuudoku-ni naru addicted, poisoned lit. to become addition

    e.g. 麻薬中毒になる (get crack-addicted) literally
    ゲーム中毒 (game-addicted) figuratively

    Japanese addiction holds no meaning about being addicted to some girl but about doing or committing something harmful or wicked as a habit.
    As for that meaning, we say 虜になる(lit. to get enslaved) or 夢中になる(lit. to get dreamed of, though it seems somewhat weird as English) instead.
  14. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    How interesting: we use the same slave metaphor in Dutch (verslaafd)...

    @holger: great information, thanks!
    Last edited: Jun 12, 2016
  15. bazq Senior Member

    In Hebrew the notion of addiction is conveyed by the root מ-כ-ר m-k-r "to sell".

    "He's addicted to..." = ...הוא מכור ל [hu maxur le...]
    מכור is a passive participle, so it's something like "sold" - "He is sold to..."

    The verb "to get addicted to" is "...התמכר ל" [hitmaker le...], something like "he sold himself to..." .
  16. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    I like the French expression "scotché à la télé" too (glued to the tv, based on the brandname Scotch of course...).
  17. Gavril Senior Member

    English, USA

    fíkn "addiction" (noun, feminine)
    fíkill "addict" (noun, masculine)
    háður "dependent, addicted" (combines with the dative of whatever someone is addicted to)
    vera/verða háður "to be/become addicted"
  18. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Would you recognize a root in fíkn or in háður , something like 'slave', or 'hang' (depend) or ...?
  19. SuperXW

    SuperXW Senior Member

    上(up/over/ascend/get on) in Chinese has developed many usages. In 上瘾, I think you may associate the tendency with "build up", "hook up", "get on", "get high" etc.

    Many people have tried to explain it with traditional culture and Feng-shui. For example, this long Chinese article may have some point.
  20. Gavril Senior Member

    English, USA
    The root of fíkill and fíkn is fík-, as also seen in the older Icelandic words fíkr "eager, gluttonous" and fíkjast "to desire (something)". To my knowledge, these are unconnected to any words meaning "slave" or "hang".

    I am unsure of the etymology of háður. Some connect it to the verb heyja "hold, conduct" or "to handicap", but I'm not sure that it couldn't instead be connected to the root seen in English hang and its cognates.

    Another Icelandic word for this list is ávani "(bad) habit, addiction", formed from the prefix á- "on" and vani "habit, custom". vani is from the same root as English wont, a somewhat rare word for "habit" or (as an adjective) "accustomed", and is also connected to German wohnen "dwell", and so on.
    Last edited: Jun 13, 2016
  21. Dib Senior Member

    Bengali (India)
    addiction = nesha (an Arabic loanword, not sure of the original meaning)
    addiction to X = X-er nesha (-er = genitive marker)
    "be addicted to X" is expressed as "have addiction to X".

    In the context of substance abuse, "addicted to X" is commonly expressed as "X-khor", where -khor is originally a Persian element, signifying in this context "eater". All X-khor words, however, sound pejorative. There are other more neutral options as well, e.g. neshar shikar (victim to addiction), etc.
  22. fdb Senior Member

    Cambridge, UK
    French (France)
    našan نشا , more commonly našwatun نشوة means “intoxication, drunkenness”, infinitives of the verb našiya “to become intoxicated”.
  23. mataripis

    mataripis Senior Member

    I heard it in Native speakers. Nalulolong is becoming addictive to . Maybe its root word is ulol meaning becoming crazy or out of mind.
  24. Nawaq Senior Member

    français (France)
    Yes accro, from accroché, apparently it's an anglicism, a kind of translation from English hooked. So, "ce mec est complètement accro aux films d'horreur". Accro doesn't have this connotation (edit, ah, maybe ir does have this connotation, I didn't know it was specifically linked to drugs... nevermind) with drugs or alcohol or sex, dépendant(e)/dépendance has I think though; a drug addict in French can be a drogué(e) (like English druggie I think), un(e) tox(ico(mane)), a junkie etc. An addiction to something: une dépendance à... l'alcool (for exemple), if you're like me and don't mind another anglicism you'll use addiction in this sens too "je souffre d'une addiction depuis mes 15 ans", before the word addiction people used to say "assuétude". Now though you can find this addict everywhere, in fashion addict and such words.
  25. 123xyz

    123xyz Senior Member

    Skopje, Macedonia

    зависност - addiction
    зависник - addict (denotes the person)
    зависен - addicted (describes the person)
    станува/стане зависен - get addicted (lit. become addicted)

    The root "вис-" means "to hang, dangle". Meanwhile, "зависност" and "зависен" also mean "dependence" and "dependent" respectively (those are their more basic meanings, from which the addiction-related meanings are derived by extension, I suppose).

    In some cases, "опседнат" meaning "obsessed" might a better translation of the English "addicted" when it's used in a figurative, mild sense.

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