All Slavic languages: diarrhoea

Discussion in 'Other Slavic Languages' started by Encolpius, Mar 10, 2010.

  1. Encolpius

    Encolpius Senior Member

    Hello, what do you call diarrhoea in your language and can you say the possible origin of the word. If there are more (spoken, formal) terms, that would be great. Thank you.

    Czech: průjem [from pro- + jmout, ie.: through / dia- + capture ]
  2. TriglavNationalPark

    TriglavNationalPark Senior Member

    Chicago, IL, U.S.A.
    Slovenian (a.k.a. Slovene)


    According to Snoj, it existed in proto-Slavic as driska and drista with the same meaning. These forms come from the Indo-European root dhreid = to defacate.

    Diareja is also common, particularly in medical and other formal contexts. (It's also the name of a legendary Slovenian comic strip.)
    Last edited: Mar 10, 2010
  3. marco_2 Senior Member

    In Polish it is called either biegunka (from biegać - "to run") or rozwolnienie (the adjective wolny meant once the same as luźny, so wolny stolec meant "loose faeces"). There is also a taboo word for diarrhoea, like in every language, I suppose :)
  4. mungu Senior Member



    Otherwise, this means "disorganization, confusion, disorder, derangement, disruption". Диария exists as a medical and formal term. The Slovene word has its counterpart in дрисък, with the verb дрискам - these are very vulgar.
  5. itreius Senior Member


    proljev (Etymology: proliti, to spill)
    Last edited: Mar 10, 2010
  6. DenisBiH

    DenisBiH Senior Member

    Also in Bosnian (and possibly other BCMS), colloquially

    lita from liti (to pour)

    HJP has litavica (colloquial) but I have never heard that one; however I guess lita could perhaps be a shorter form of it.
  7. Awwal12 Senior Member

    Moscow, the RF
    In Russian:
    понос (ponos) - probably from "nesti" (нести, imp. "to carry, to bear"); compare "pronosit'" (проносить, imp. "to carry by/past/through"; but also means "to have a diarrhea" in impersonal constructions)
    диарея (diareya, a medical term which can be also used in polite context - for instance, in a commercial broadcast)
    Well, in Russian one can say "расстройство живота/желудка", but that not necessary means diarrhea - it may be almost any problem with digestion.
    Interesting. That strongly reminds a low colloquial Russian verb "дристать" /dristat'/ - "to have a diarrhea". However I hardly can form a noun from it. :)
    Last edited: Mar 10, 2010
  8. The Machine of Zhu Member

    Dutch - Flemish
    I think it's proliv in Serbian.
  9. mungu Senior Member

    So can one in Bulgarian: стомашно разстройство (stomach upset /indigestion), нервно разстройство (nervous breakdown). But when one says just разстройство, one normally means diarrhoea.
  10. DenisBiH

    DenisBiH Senior Member

    Hm, now that you mention it, according to "Pravopis bosanskoga jezika" by Senahid Halilović, both proljev and proliv are allowed in Bosnian. Another in a series of doublets, I guess.

    Btw, Russian понос "diarrhea" and BCMS ponos / понос "pride" must be the best (or the worst :)) pair of false friends ever.
  11. mungu Senior Member

    Great! This an exact calque / loan-translation of the Greek word: dia- "through" + rhein "to flow". Pity we Bulgarians didn't think of this - Bulgarian пролив is just "a strait" (as in the Bering Strait).
  12. marco_2 Senior Member

    Is it also possible to say разслабление? - I think I heard this word in Bulgaria in such a context.
  13. DenisBiH

    DenisBiH Senior Member

    Ah yes, I guess there is also a couple of more "politically correct" phrases for diarrhea:

    tečna stolica (liquid stool)
    vodenasta stolica (watery stool)

    From what I can see from Google, when used these quite often refer to babies.
  14. mungu Senior Member

    It's close. Разслабвам means primarily "to relax", but also "to loosen the bowels"; the noun would be разслабване. This is what a слабително, "laxative" does, and so do some types of food (plums etc). So if you take in a little of something that разслабва, then you're OK and you get rid of your constipation if you had one. If you take in too much of something that разслабва, then you get diarrhea. But not every разслабване causes a разстройство. :)
  15. jazyk Senior Member

    Brno, Česká republika
    Brazílie, portugalština
    I found hnačka in Slovak. I don't know where it comes from.
  16. bibax Senior Member

    I think hnačka is colloquial, from the verb hnáti.

    In Czech běhavka (běhati) = backdoor trot.

    Btw, průliv = strait (but we say Beringova úžina)
  17. TriglavNationalPark

    TriglavNationalPark Senior Member

    Chicago, IL, U.S.A.
    Slovenian (a.k.a. Slovene)
    In Slovenian preliv = topping (something that is poured on food, usually desserts), flow (from one place to another), strait
    Last edited: Mar 11, 2010
  18. Azori

    Azori Senior Member

    Hnačka is a standard word, hnať = to drive, to impel, to force; prehnať/preháňať -> preháňadlo = laxative


    riedka stolica - thin stool
    vodnatá stolica - watery stool
  19. Majalj Senior Member

    Bosnian & Croatian & Serbian
    Bosnian: to a teacher as an excuse for absence one would say diareja or stomačni problemi (upset stomach), but it is normally called proljev (as people already said). However, I could not have left forgotten nicknames, such as sraćka and trčkalica.
    Last edited: Mar 11, 2010
  20. bibax Senior Member

    Czech: sračka, very informal word for diarrhoea

    You can even say e.g.: Ten Avatar, to je ale sračka!
  21. DenisBiH

    DenisBiH Senior Member

    Juče mi se učinilo da mi izmiče neka riječ za to koju sam često slušao ali je se nikako nisam mogao sjetiti - to je definitivno sraćka. Za trčkalicu prvi put čujem (mada je poznata mojoj staroj)
  22. Encolpius

    Encolpius Senior Member

    it would be nice to find out if the sračka, I think it comes from the vulgar srát (to shit):warn: is known among all Slavic languages.
  23. kudikamo

    kudikamo Senior Member

    croata/ hrvatski (štokavski, ijekavica)
    Archacic Croatian (not in use any more, however, listed in dictionaries): protoč.
  24. TriglavNationalPark

    TriglavNationalPark Senior Member

    Chicago, IL, U.S.A.
    Slovenian (a.k.a. Slovene)
    Sračka also exists in colloquial Slovenian; it can refer either to diarrhea or to a cranky/indecisive person.
  25. nexy Senior Member

    Trieste (Italia)
    In Serbian, we most often say proliv (colloq.). I sometimes use sraćka, but I have not heard of trčkalica.

    Preliv has the same meaning in Serbian.
  26. marco_2 Senior Member

    I didn't want to say that, but in Polish we also have sraczka and it is very colloquial. And when talking mostly about babies, doctors use the expression luźny stolec.
  27. Maroseika Moderator

    Дрисня (coll.).
    By the way дристать and driska are cognats of Eng. "dirt".
  28. Azori

    Azori Senior Member

    In Slovak drisnúť (perf.)/drístať (imp.) means to blather, to talk nonsense; drisnúť (no imperfective form) also means "to fall" (on the ground) accidentally. Preliv - (hair) rinse, tint; prieliv - strait; sračka - diarrhoea.
  29. Maroseika Moderator

    Russian also has such figurative expression (словесный понос). It's rather recent though. How came Slovak has completely lost original sense of drisnúť/drístať ? Or it still has it to some extent?
  30. bibax Senior Member

    Czech: dřístati (also dřízdati) = to have a diarhoea;

    nouns: dřist, dřístačka (dřízdačka)

    Now obsolete or dialectical. Also some plants have (folk) names derived from the stem dřist- (they cause diarrhoea).

    Old English: dritan (verb), drit (noun), hence dirt
    Last edited: Mar 13, 2010
  31. DenisBiH

    DenisBiH Senior Member

    I keep wondering, all these sraćka / sračka / sraczka words for diarrhea...are they simply parallel developments or could we trace them via regular sound changes to some Common Slavic word? Since they are present in both South and West Slavic.

    Would -tj- cluster somewhere in a reconstructed word yield these reflexes? Is there any similar word in Bulgarian (never mind if it doesn't mean exactly diarrhea), along the lines of сраштка, срашта, срашка?
    Last edited: Mar 13, 2010
  32. Maroseika Moderator

    This word is common for all Slavic languages incl. Russian (срать), Ukrainian (срати) and is connected with сор (dirt, litter).

    Also cf.:
    Serbian о̀сорљив - the one who urinates in the bed
    Latvian sãrn̨i - dirt, menses excretions
    Lithuanian šаrvаi - menses excretions
    Avestian sаirуа - manure
  33. DenisBiH

    DenisBiH Senior Member

    Hi Maroseika, thanks but I'm referring specifically to sraćka / sračka / sraczka and other possible cognates/parallel formations, not the verb srati and its cognates (of course it's the same root in both so they're all cognates in the end). So when I said trace them to a Common Slavic word, I meant something like *sortja or *sratja or *sratjka or *sratjьka (or whatever, my knowledge of reconstructed Common Slavic and its different phases is rather poor).

    For example, take BCMS praćka "sling"

    Last edited: Mar 13, 2010
  34. Maroseika Moderator

    Well, Vasmer reconstructs Praslavic as *sьrati, serǫ.
  35. mungu Senior Member

    No there isn't (we do have the verb сера and a deverbal noun сране). Russian doesn't seem to have it either. A West Slavic and Western South Slavic feature?
  36. DenisBiH

    DenisBiH Senior Member

    Thanks. These guys below seem to be discussing срачка in Russian and/or Ukrainian but my Russian comprehension is not that good to get all the details. However, at least in the case of the example below, it seems it could have the meaning of Russian понос, i.e. diarrhea.,16517.0.html

  37. DenisBiH

    DenisBiH Senior Member

    This site also seems to suggest the meaning diarrhea for срачка in Ukrainian.

  38. mungu Senior Member

    Judging from the discussion, the use of the word in the sense "diarrhea" is mostly characteristic of local dialects, especially in the vicinity of Ukrainian, but is unfamiliar to many in the heartland.
  39. bibax Senior Member

    The Czech suffix -čka in pračka/myčka/sračka/... is a compound suffix: 1) -cí (< *-tjьjь, *-tjьja, ...) forming verbal adjectives and 2) -ka (common Slavic suffix)

    -cí plus -ka gives -čka like in, for example:

    práti (to wash) -> prací (prášek) -> pračka (washing machine);
    žvýkati -> žvýkací (guma) -> žvýkačka

    In BCS there was probably a similar development of the suffix -ćka:

    žvakati -> žvakaća (-ća < *-tjьja) -> žvakaćka
    Last edited: Mar 14, 2010
  40. Adnyre Member

    Ukrainian @ Russian
    In Ukrainian, it's пронос (neutral register) or діарея (formal). Colloquially, срачка is very common and дрисня is less common. I've also heard people calling it швидка ('quick', fem.), but this is probably a localism.
  41. DenisBiH

    DenisBiH Senior Member

    bibax, I forgot to thank you yesterday. Your input is very much appreciated! :)

    I'm wondering if you, or another forum member, could recommend a good book on reconstructed Common/Proto-Slavic that includes discussion on these and other Slavic suffixes?

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