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Bactrian ašto-walgo

Discussion in 'Etymology, History of languages and Linguistics (EHL)' started by Skatinginbc, Apr 12, 2013.

  1. Skatinginbc

    Skatinginbc Senior Member

    Canada
    Mandarin 國語
    [FONT=&amp]I know [/FONT][FONT=&amp]a[/FONT][FONT=&amp]š[/FONT][FONT=&amp]to-walgo [/FONT]is a Kushan title. [FONT=&amp]Having served as an [/FONT][FONT=&amp]a[/FONT][FONT=&amp]š[/FONT][FONT=&amp]to-walgo [/FONT][FONT=&amp]since young, Nokonzoko [/FONT][FONT=&amp]of [/FONT][FONT=&amp]the Rabatak inscription, apparently the same person as [/FONT][FONT=&amp]Nokonzoko of the Surkh Kotal inscription, was eventually promoted to a higher position (i.e., kara-lrango,which I assume to be the head of a township or a customs office). But what does the title [/FONT][FONT=&amp][FONT=&amp]a[/FONT][FONT=&amp]š[/FONT][FONT=&amp]to-walgo [/FONT]mean? What is [/FONT][FONT=&amp][FONT=&amp][FONT=&amp]a[/FONT][FONT=&amp]š[/FONT][FONT=&amp]to[/FONT][/FONT]? And what is [/FONT][FONT=&amp][FONT=&amp][FONT=&amp]walgo[/FONT][/FONT]? [/FONT]
     
  2. fdb Senior Member

    Cambridge, UK
    French (France)
    The title αþτοοαλγο – probably /hā̆štwālg/ - occurs in the Rabatak inscription and also in one document from the Sasanian period. Sims-Williams connects the second element with Iranian *wādaka-, “leader”, as in Khotanese hīna-bāyaa- “leader of the army”, but the first element has not been explained until now.
     
  3. ancalimon Senior Member

    Istanbul
    Turkish
    Maybe Turkic "ast" meaning "subordinate" could be related.
     
  4. Skatinginbc

    Skatinginbc Senior Member

    Canada
    Mandarin 國語
    Thank you fdb, again. I know I can always count on you. Thank you Ancalimon as well. Your Turkic "ast" theory is quite interesting. I have to take time to think it through (i.e., how to make sense of the second element walgo if we accept the first element meaning 'subordinate').
    Do you mean Bactrian ašto < Avestan ashta 'eight' (Pahlavi hašt 'eight')? I can easily understand 'eighth leader' with an ordinal suffix (e.g., Avestan ashtemem 'eighth'). Without an ordinal suffix, I have more questions as my knowledge in Iranian is very limited: Is it an Iranian convention to say something like "two king' meaning "the second king", "four prince" meaning "the fourth prince", "seven brother" meaning "the seventh brother"?

    Also, can Iranian *wādaka- 'leader' be separated into *wa- + -*daka? I know that /d/ > /l/ already occurred in the morpheme initial then (e.g., maliz = maha + diz, where /d-/ is in the morpheme initial). But I am not certain if post-vocalic or intervocalic /-d-/ > /-l-/) has taken place in the EARLY Bactrian inscriptions or not. We can easily find examples of post-vocalic /d/ that did NOT undergo lenition (e.g., Surkh Kotal inscription: TAΔI /tadi/ 'soon and hurry', ΦOPΔAMC /fordams/ 'foremost', ΠΙΔΟΡΙΓΔ /peduregd/ 'left')(http://www.alamahabibi.com/pdfs/E_Mother_of Dari_Language .pdf).

    Iranian *wādaka-'leader' (Avestan: caus. vāδayeiti < Proto-IE *wedh-'to lead') is very interesting. I'm still debating whether Bactrian walgo comes from Iranian -*wada 'to lead' or from Tocharian [FONT=&amp]√[/FONT][FONT=&amp]*wl ‘to rule, govern, control’ (TchB walo 'king'[/FONT][FONT=&amp] < PTch *wälo; [/FONT][FONT=&amp]T[/FONT][FONT=&amp]chA wlāw-, TchB wlāw-, PTch *wlāw- < PIE *wleha- ‘control’, *[/FONT][FONT=&amp]welǝ[/FONT][FONT=&amp]- ‘be strong, powerful). It depends on whether we can prove that post-vocalic /d/ > /l/ has occurred in EARLY Bactrian and that such so-called "lenition" is not a linguistic interference from Tocharain. [/FONT]

    I suspect that Bactrian walg (< *walg) might be cognate to Kroranic -valay (as in the Kroranic title cu-valay-ina, where cu- is probably a proper name whose meaning is still unknown, Burrow 1937:90)(Note: In Kroranic, [FONT=&amp]/g[/FONT][FONT=&amp]/ [/FONT][FONT=&amp]alternates with /y/, e.g., [/FONT][FONT=&amp]ʋ[/FONT][FONT=&amp]yaga = [/FONT][FONT=&amp]ʋ[/FONT][FONT=&amp]yaya,[/FONT][FONT=&amp] ʋ[/FONT][FONT=&amp]iraga = [/FONT][FONT=&amp]ʋ[/FONT][FONT=&amp]iraya, [/FONT][FONT=&amp]Burrow[/FONT][FONT=&amp] 1937: 6). What makes Bactirian and Kroranic in common is that they both host a Tocharian stratum. [/FONT]
     
    Last edited: Apr 13, 2013
  5. fdb Senior Member

    Cambridge, UK
    French (France)
    The Bactrian word for “eight” is αταο /ata/. The development of Ir. /št/ > Bact. /t/ is normal.

    Iranian /d/ becomes Bactrian /l/ in all positions, from the very earliest texts onward. If you see δ in Bactrian, it will normally come from Iranian post-sonant /t/.
     
  6. Skatinginbc

    Skatinginbc Senior Member

    Canada
    Mandarin 國語
    Dah, what was I thinking? :D ΠΙΔΟΡΙΓΔ /peduregd/ derives from pita-rixta. It is /t/>/d/. Stupid me!!!
    Can you please tell me what Bactrian /hā̆št/ in /hā̆štwālg/ means?
     
    Last edited: Apr 13, 2013
  7. fdb Senior Member

    Cambridge, UK
    French (France)
    This remains a mystery. But, it can hardly be Turkish at such an early date.
     
  8. Skatinginbc

    Skatinginbc Senior Member

    Canada
    Mandarin 國語
    [FONT=&amp]Could it come from Av [/FONT][FONT=&amp]âxshti[/FONT][FONT=&amp] ‘peace’? [/FONT]
     
  9. fdb Senior Member

    Cambridge, UK
    French (France)
    I would expect /*āxt/. Besides, in the later of its two occurrences ᾱþτοοαλγο is written with a superscript line, probably indicating an initial /h-/. But the real problem is that /št/ is rare in Bactrian.
     

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