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BBB: basic adjectives

Discussion in 'All Languages' started by ThomasK, Jun 8, 2013.

  1. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    In Dutch there are three key adjectives beginning with a B: blij (glad - with something), bang (scared, afraid - of), boos (angry - with, though also evil). How do you translate those in your language?

    Please don't mix up glad and happy. I am always referring to moods, passing feelings, not the very deep ones...
  2. apmoy70 Senior Member

    In Greek:

    Blij (glad - with something):
    Adj. «ευχαριστημένος, -νη, -νο» [efxaristi'menos] (masc.), [efxaristi'meni] (fem.), [efxaristi'meno] (neut.) --> pleased, glad < Classical Perfect Tense passive participle «ηὐχαριστημένος, -νη, -νον» ēukʰărĭstēménŏs (masc.), ēukʰărĭstēménē (fem.), ēukʰărĭstēménŏn (neut.) --> pleased person < Classical Present Tense passive v. «εὐχαριστέομαι/εὐχαριστοῦμαι» eukʰărĭstéŏmæ (uncontracted) / eukʰărĭstoûmæ (contracted) --> το take pleasure in < compound, prefix and adverb «εὖ» eu --> well (PIΕ *uesu-/ *h₁(e)su-, good; cf Skt. वसु (vasu), good; Hitt. āššu, good) + Classical fem. noun «χαρὰ» kʰarà --> joy, pleasure (PIE *ǵʰer-, to long for, to wish; cf Skt हर्यति (hAryati), to long for; Proto-Germanic *gira-, to wish, desire > Ger. gern, Eng. yearn, Dt. gaarne).

    Bang (scared, afraid - of):
    Adj. «φοβισμένος, -νη, -νο» [fovi'zmenos] (masc.), [fovi'zmeni] (fem.), [fovi'zmeno] (neut.) --> scared, afraid of < Classical Perfect Tense passive participle «πεφοβισμένος, -νη, -νον» pĕpʰŏbĭsménŏs (masc.), pĕpʰŏbĭsménē (fem.), pĕpʰŏbĭsménŏn (neut.) --> scared person < Classical Perfect Tense passive v. «φοβέομαι/φοβοῦμαι» pʰŏbéŏmæ (uncontracted) / pʰŏboûmæ (contracted) --> to be frightened, scared, to be put to flight < Classical masc. noun «φόβος» pʰóbŏs --> fear, personification of Fear («Φόβος») as son of god of war, Ares (PIE *bʰegʷ-, to run away, flee; cf Lth. bėgti, to run; Ltv. bēgt, to walk, flee; OCS бѣжати (běžati), to run, flee > Rus. бежать, to run, flee).

    Boos (angry - with, though also evil):
    Adj. «θυμωμένος, -νη, -νο» [θimo'menos] (masc.), [θimo'meni] (fem.), [θimo'meno] (neut.) --> angry < Classical Perfect Tense passive participle «τεθυμωμένος, τεθυμωμένη, τεθυμωμένον» tĕtʰŭmōménŏs (masc.), tĕtʰŭmōménē (fem.), tĕtʰŭmōménŏn (neut.) --> enraged person < Classical Present Tense passive v. «θυμόομαι/θυμοῦμαι» tʰŭmóŏmæ (uncontracted) / tʰŭmoûmæ (contracted) --> to be angry, put into a rage < Classical masc. noun «θῡμός» tʰūmós --> spirit, courage, anger (PIE dʰuh₂-mo-, smoke; cf Skt. धूम (dhūmA), smoke; Lat. fūmus > It./Por. fumo, Fr. fumée, Eng. fume, Sp. humo; Proto-Germanic *staubmaz > Eng. steam, Dt. stoom
    Last edited: Jun 8, 2013
  3. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Thanks, Apmoy: I recognize two out of three. The third does not have to do with some organ in the throad (thymus ?), does it?
  4. apmoy70 Senior Member

    Hi TK,

    It's very difficult (impossible in IE terms) to establish a link between the two because they differ in vowel quantity: The masculine «θῡμός» (anger) has the -ῡ- long, while the neuter «θύμον» (thymus) has the -ῠ- short. The latter is (probably) an unrelated Pre-Greek word.
  5. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Thanks, i see! One extra note though: isn't it "strange" that very common words are that long. ours seem to be so short, but these are long. Would you have alternatives that are similar and more common in every-day language?
  6. DearPrudence

    DearPrudence Dépêche Mod

    French (lower Normandy)
    In French, as you problably know, I think it would be:
    "blij zijn": "être content" ("être heureux" is a deeper feeling)
    "bang zijn": "avoir peur" (literally: to have fear)
    "boos zijn": "être fâché" (would "en colère" work?)
  7. apmoy70 Senior Member

    Actually these are the most commonly used adjectives in the vernacular. I didn't even mention learned adjectives. That's the mechanics of Greek, what can I say?
    Don't be intimidate by the suffix «-μενος (-μενη, -μενο)» it's a PIE characteristic for constructing verbal adjectives (aka participles) in the medio-passive voice: PIE *mh₁no- or *m(e)no-
  8. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Don't draw any conclusions from what I write: I just have some idée fixes with regard to words, and I Always think things must be like that, whereas it is just a bias of mine...
  9. Ёж! Senior Member

    And many other words.
    Last edited: Jun 9, 2013
  10. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Could I get the transcription as well? I can decipher to a large extent, but I'd like to be sure. Do they all contain a root verb? Are the synonyms interchangeable?
    Last edited: Jun 10, 2013
  11. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    I just wondered: if you ask someone who is in fear, scared: "comment tu te sens?", could s/he answer in some way with "je suis ..."? I suppose not, just wondering...
  12. DearPrudence

    DearPrudence Dépêche Mod

    French (lower Normandy)
    I suppose if you really want to use "être", then you could say "être effrayé" (= frightened), which is stronger and far less common than "avoir peur".
  13. Ёж! Senior Member

    dovolen, rad, napugan, ispugan, rasserжen, zol.

    Напуган and испуган are more or less interchangeable, the rest are more or less not. In the sense of being scared (a little or much), one would most likely use the verb: «я боюсь» (lit. 'I fear', it means: 'I'm scared'), or the adjective: «мне страшно» (lit.: "it's fearsome to me", and for me it sounds more like "I fear"); the adjective «страшно» is derived from the abstract noun «страх» ('fear'). «Доволен» makes a reference to «воля» (freedom, will; I think, literally it means 'with up to one's will', that is, 'with enough to fulfill one's will', but I'm not just sure), «рад» is a root; both are adjectives. «Рассержен» is a short passive participle of the verb «рассердить» (to make angry), there is also an adjective «сердитый» (the short form is «сердит»). The short adjective «зол» is a root, it refers to evil; the full form «злой» describes a person who deliberately wants to bring evil to people (much evil or little evil). There is also a verb that corresponds to it («разозлить») and a short passive participle («разозлён») as well.
    Last edited: Jun 10, 2013
  14. arielipi Senior Member

    (glad - with something) - מאושר me'ushar
    bang (scared, afraid - of) - חושש khoshesh, מפחד mefakhed
    boos (angry - with, though also evil) - זועם zo'em is more in the rage zone, but the other word for anger is without evil.
  15. apmoy70 Senior Member

    In Greek too «θυμωμένος, -νη, -νο» [θimo'menos] (masc.), [θimo'meni] (fem.), [θimo'meno] (neut.) is the angry person, without evil connotation.
    The passionately enraged person (which implies evil) is a «χολωμένος, -νη, -νο» [xolo'menos] (masc.), [xolo'meni] (fem.), [xolo'meno] (neut.) < Classical Perfect Tense passive participle «κεχολωμένος, -νη, νο» kĕkʰŏlōménŏs (masc.), kĕkʰŏlōménē (fem.), kĕkʰŏlōménŏn (neut.) --> to be turned into bile < Classical Present Tense passive v. «χολόομαι/χολοῦμαι» kʰŏlóŏmæ (uncontracted) / kʰŏloûmæ (contracted) --> to be full of black bile, to be melancholy mad < Classical fem. noun «χολὴ» kʰŏlḕ --> gall, bile (PIE *ǵʰelh₃-, to sprout originally referring to the green-yellow colour of sprouting vegetation; cf Skt हरि (hAri), pale yellow; Lat. holus, greens, vegetables; Proto-Germanic *galla- > Eng. gall)
  16. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    @DearP: thanks, but I understand.
  17. AutumnOwl

    AutumnOwl Senior Member

    Swedish - Sweden, Finnish
    blij - vara glad (be glad, happy), känna glädje (feel gladness, happiness)
    bang - vara rädd (be scared), känna rädsla (feel/be afraid)
    boos - vara arg (be angry), vara ond (be evil), känna ilska (feel anger), ondska (evilness)

    Bang is interesting, as we have in Swedish the slang word (att) banga - meaning to be scared, or cowardly; or to say no/not participate in something, and the phrase banga ur - to abstain from something because being scared or because of cowardice.
  18. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    German :
    - froh,
    - ich habe Angst (I think),
    - böse...
  19. sakvaka

    sakvaka Moderoitsija


    blij = iloinen (happy, glad; from 'ilo' joy, happiness) or onnellinen (happy; from 'onni' fortune, luck)
    bang = peloissaan* (from 'pelko' fear, lit. 'in his fears')
    boos = vihainen (angry, from 'viha' wrath); paha (evil)

    *Consists of 'peloissa' (in fears) and -an (his). Always agrees with the subject: peloissani, peloissasi, peloissaan / peloissansa, peloissamme, peloissanne, peloissaan / peloissansa. Eg. Minä olen peloissani. I'm afraid. Me olemme peloissamme. We're afraid.

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