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Chiisai, Chiisaku, Chiisana

Discussion in '日本語 (Japanese)' started by guyper, Jul 10, 2007.

  1. guyper Senior Member

    French Creole
    What's the difference between them?

    Is one simply more informal?

    Thank you
     
  2. Flaminius

    Flaminius coclea mod

    capita Iaponiae
    日本語 / japāniski / יפנית
    Chiisai and chiisaku are inflected forms of the same adjective, which usually is represented by chiisai. Chiisai is either the conclusive form or the adnominal form of the adjective while chiisaku is the adverbial form. The following are small examples;

    [conclusive]
    watashi-wa se-ga chiisai.
    I-TOPIC height-NOMINATIVE small
    I am short.

    [adnominal]
    chiisai neko
    small cat

    [adverbial]
    haha-wa chiisaku tameiki-o tsuita.
    mother-TOPIC small-ly sigh-ACCUSATIVE emitPast
    Mum sighed softly.
     
  3. bruno321 Junior Member

    París, Francia
    Uruguay, Spanish
    Then what about chiisana?
     
  4. Flaminius

    Flaminius coclea mod

    capita Iaponiae
    日本語 / japāniski / יפנית
    Chiisana is the alternative adnominal form.
     
  5. cheshire

    cheshire Senior Member

    اليابان
    Catholic (Cat-holic, not Catholic)
    Yes, chiisana 小さな is an alternative of chiisai 小さい.

    We could say 小さい is the unmarked version; 小さな is a special version.

    -na adjectives make it less objective, less basic, more subjective.

    Think of them as similar to some French adjectives that come before a noun.
     
  6. Flaminius

    Flaminius coclea mod

    capita Iaponiae
    日本語 / japāniski / יפנית
    Comparing the raw counts of Google results for 小さい車 vs. 小さな車, 小さい池 vs. 小さな池, 小さいこと vs. 小さなこと, I find 小さな is slightly more common; granted that the form is morphologically irregular. Not that 小さな is always preferred to 小さい, though. The latter is overwhelmingly common when 小さなころ is compared against 小さいころ.

    Could you provide some examples? :)
     
  7. cheshire

    cheshire Senior Member

    اليابان
    Catholic (Cat-holic, not Catholic)
    You're dealing with collocation there; I was dealing with basic rules.


    小さい:客観的、もっとも基本的な形。

    小さい城・小さい山・小さい車

    小さ:主観的、特殊形。より話者の感情を吐露。

    小さ城、小さ山・小さ
    漢語に接尾辞「な」をつけることによって形容詞が作れる。
    「小さい」を「小さ」に屈折させることは「体言化」の一種であろう。「小さい」は(素直な)形容詞であるが、「体言化(名詞化)」の操作をし、<漢語プラス「な」>と似た形を作ることによって、「素直な形容詞」を超える感情的な陰影を付加することができる。

    体言化が感情表現になりうる例を挙げる。

    この子犬は大きくなったこと
    猫のあくびは長い

     

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