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Classes de palavras: Numeral

Discussion in 'Português (Portuguese)' started by bhagavan dasa, Mar 24, 2008.

  1. bhagavan dasa

    bhagavan dasa Senior Member

    Brazil, portuguese
    Boa noite a todos.

    A classe gramatical "numeral" não existe em Inglês? Qual função morfológica os numerais (não confundir, por favor, com número) exerceriam? Seriam adjetivos ou isso variaria em diferentes contextos?

    Thanks in advance.
     
  2. mnajan Senior Member

  3. bhagavan dasa

    bhagavan dasa Senior Member

    Brazil, portuguese
    Não é o que estou procurando não, mnajan, mas é um material interessante de qualquer forma. Obrigado.
     
  4. arbilab Senior Member

    Dallas Texas US
    US english
    Number exists in English. In pronouns, a different word is used (he, they). In nouns, most often only an 's' is added. Verbs reflect number (he was, they were). Adjectives do not convey number or gender.

    Pardon if that is not what you were asking, I can only read about every 5th word of Portuguese.
     
  5. bhagavan dasa

    bhagavan dasa Senior Member

    Brazil, portuguese
    I can understand, arbilab, that english has that kind of number, singular and plural, but in portuguese we have a class of words called "numeral", like: "He has two balls". He is a pronoun, has is a verb, balls is a noun and two, in portuguese, is "numeral"; what is its classification in english?
     
  6. ronanpoirier

    ronanpoirier Senior Member

    Porto Alegre
    Brazil - Portuguese
    In English they are called simply "Adjectives". :)
     
  7. arbilab Senior Member

    Dallas Texas US
    US english
    Sorry, I was unclear above. Adjectives do convey number, I was trying to say that they do not typically change form or spelling with grammatical number (or gender). Used in your construction, 'two' is an adjective. But also, numbers can be nouns, as in 'The winning number was three.' The word class is determined by use.

    Actually, I have never thought about how we handle numbers, nor do I recall being formally taught that. We do have cardinals, ordinals...

    One, two, three.
    First, second, third.
    Single, double, triple.
    Fractionals get a little trickier. Whole, half, third. But you can see that 'third' doesn't distinguish itself from the ordinal 'third'. We would state that as a fraction, 'one third, two thirds'. It is not necessary to do that to 'half', the 'one' is implied; it is also correct to include it, 'one half'. We alter the spelling of half, to 'halves' (the L is silent) if you are talking about more than one, 'two halves of the same whole' (metaphorical) 'I ate three apple halves' (numerical). Halve is the verb, to divide in half/into halves. I don't know of any other fractional verbs in common use. You might hear 'The two of us only had one apple, so we halved it', but not commonly 'The three of us only had one apple, so we thirded it', although it would be understood.

    There is also a common ordinal verb, 'I second the motion', but again as with fractionals, it doesn't work well beyond second. 'I third the motion' is awkward, though probably would be understood in context.

    We also have 'seconds' in time, in servings of food 'I'm going back for seconds.', and in discount goods, 'factory seconds'.
     
  8. Vanda

    Vanda Moderesa de Beagá

    Belo Horizonte, BRASIL
    Português/ Brasil
    Vizinho sumido! Só para dar uma força aos meninos: adjetivos. Ronan e eu aprendemos da mesma fonte: no arquivo do nosso dicionário WR! Achamos muito esquisito a primeira vez que vimos!:)
     
  9. Macunaíma

    Macunaíma Senior Member

    Um ninho de mafagalfinhos
    português, Brasil
    Numerais em português são classe gramatical à parte e dividem-se em categorias: cardinais (um, dois, três...), ordinais (primeiro, segundo, terceiro...), fracionários ( um terço, um quarto... um onze avos... um milésimo), multiplicativos (dobro, triplo, quádruplo...) e coletivos (duo, dueto, trio, quarteto...).

    Eu imagino que os ordinais e os multiplicativos devem ser especialmente difíceis para quem aprende português, porque mesmo alguns nativos se embananam com eles. Sem contar que a maioria flexiona no gênero:

    Dois garfos e duas facas.
    Septingentésimo septuagésimo sétimo (777º)
    Septingentésima septuagésima sétima (777ª)
    ...etc.
     

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