Hello, Could you please tell me when a comma is necessary before 'especially' and when it is unnecessary? I have noticed that a comma is sometimes preceding 'especially' and at times no comma is available. I also noticed that no comma is available immediately after it which is unlike 'namely' and 'for example'. 'Namely' and 'for example' are usually surrounded by commas.The following are some examples: 1. in Britain, any of certain small sandpipers (especially the dunlin) and the great tit (titmouse). http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1357048/oxeye#tab=active~checked%2Citems~checked&title=oxeye%20--%20Britannica%20Online%20Encyclopedia 2. ...Especially disappointing to him was his loss to Emanuel Lasker in 1908 for the world championship. Despite his failures, Tarrasch is best remembered for his books,especially The Game of Chess (1935), which developed and popularized... http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/224887/The-Game-of-Chess#tab=active~checked%2Citems~checked&title=The%20Game%20of%20Chess%20--%20Britannica%20Online%20Encyclopedia 3. These varieties may have to be especially fine for production of specialized cakes, called high-ratio cakes, that are especially light and have good keeping qualities. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/265339/high-ratio-cake#tab=active~checked%2Citems~checked&title=high-ratio%20cake%20--%20Britannica%20Online%20Encyclopedia I hope to hear from you soon. Thank you. With best wishes.