Comma thread portal with info, key word links and topic sentences

Discussion in 'English Only' started by Comma use, Aug 25, 2013.

  1. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    The comma thread portal is an attempt to present in a condensed form the entire scope of the EO forum threads on comma use (as of June 2013) in order to facilitate the search for information on this extensive subject.

    The threads have been divided into 19 main categories, most of them with subcategories. Each main category contains: (1) an info post (indicated by the :arrow: smiley), which briefly explains pertinent concepts, (2) key word links that return lists with relevant thread titles, and (3) the topic sentences of the individual threads as well as their specific links.

    The index section below summarizes the content of this thread portal. Each index word should be understood as related to comma use. For example, the linked index item that refers to comma use with regard to the word that.
     
  2. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    CONTENTS: MAIN CATEGORIES

    1. Comma use 11. Comma with direct address, salutation or speech tag
    2. Comma with abbreviation 12. Comma with ellipsis
    3. Comma with adjective 13. Comma with interjection
    4. Comma with adverb 14. Comma vs. other punctuation mark
    5. Comma with 'and', 'but' or 'or' 15. Comma with participle
    6. Comma with apposition or absolute construction 16. Comma with phrase
    7. Comma with clause element 17. Comma with preposition
    8. Comma splice 18. Comma with quotation mark
    9. Comma with conjunction 19. Comma with relative pronoun
    10. Comma with date or number





    INDEX


    a little clause coordination hence of such as
    abbreviation clause element however often surprisingly
    about colon i.e. on one hand...on the other survey
    absolute construction comma splice if on thank you
    according to comma use if any only thanks
    adjectival phrase complex preposition if anything or that
    adjective compound conjunction in over then
    adjective phrase compound predicate in fact owing to thereby
    adverb conjunction in order to Oxford comma therefore
    adverb ending in -ly conjunctive adverb in question page reference though
    adverb of degree dash in that participle thus
    adverb of opinion date including past participle title
    adverb of place decimal indeed per to
    adverb of time depending on instead of perhaps today
    adverbial phrase despite interjection period too
    after direct address into phrase U.S.
    all direct speech introductory phrase please unfortunately
    all things considered down itself predicative adjective unless
    also during joining comma preposition until
    among each Jr. present participle very much
    and early just as quotation weird
    apposition ellipsis like quotation mark what's more
    as enthusiastically list relative pronoun when
    as soon as enumeration listing comma respectively where
    as usual especially maybe salutation whereas
    as well etc. mention aspect semicolon whether...or
    as well as even though myself separator which
    at everywhere name serial comma while
    at least except neither...nor since who
    attributive noun exclamation mark nested quotation slash whom
    because for no so whose
    before for short nonetheless so as to why
    between from nor so much with
    both from...to not only...but also so that without
    bracketing comma full stop now so...that yes
    but gapping comma number specifically yesterday
    by goodbye object speech tag yet
    by no means headline obviously subject zero relative pronoun
     
    Last edited: Apr 10, 2014
  3. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    :arrow: 1. COMMA USE
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma use

    The comma is a punctuation mark – a symbol used to indicate the structure of written language. It has several functions, which may be summarized as listing, joining, gapping and bracketing. All threads about comma use touch upon one of those aspects.

    The listing comma is used as a substitute for the conjunctions in lists: and, or. Cf. He bought apples, pears and oranges. He bought apples and pears and oranges.

    The joining comma is used with a coordinating conjunction to join independent clauses, e.g. Everyone who has dined at our house has loved these, and I guarantee you will too.

    The bracketing comma​, which is perhaps the most difficult to master, is used to set off an interruption without much disturbing a sentence's flow. It often comes in pairs. E.g. My current obsession, though, is comedy sketch shows.

    The gapping comma is used to show that one or several words have been left out, something which linguists call ellipsis, e.g. John was the manager; Mary, the clerk.

    For more information about comma use, see Wiki article Comma and University of Sussex Guide to Punctuation.

    Below are links to general discussions on comma use.
     
  4. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    1.1 COMMA USE: LINKS AND TOPIC SENTENCES
    (Back to Index)​
    General discussions
    .
    Are commas necessary? Link
    .
    Where do commas go in English sentences? Link
    .
    More or fewer commas in sentences - what is best? Link
    .
    Complex topic sentences
    .
    To me, it still seems to maintain its original poise, standing, in a drafty time, erect, resolute, and assured. Link
    .
    We both fell for a long time, and the night fell too so as to accompany us, with the big white eye of the moon which laughed because it likes people who love. Link
    .
     
  5. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    :arrow: 2. COMMA WITH ABBREVIATION
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma abbreviation

    An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase, consisting typically of a letter or a group of letters from that word or phrase, such as Jr. Modern English has adopted about fifty Latin abbreviations, two of which are etc. and i.e..

    An initialism is a special type of abbreviation that consists of a string of initials, for example, U.S. If the string can be pronounced as a word, it is referred to as an acronym.

    For more information about abbreviations, see Wiki entries for Abbreviation, Acronym and List of Latin abbreviations.

    Below are further key word links and links to specific threads on Comma with abbreviation. Clicking a key word link returns a list of those threads along with related and more recent threads.
     
  6. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    2.1 COMMA WITH LATIN ABBREVIATION
    (Back to Index)​
    etc.
    abbreviation etc.
    .
    The room was full of party decorations, including strippers, bongs, etc., and machine guns. Link
    .
    i.e.
    abbreviation i.e.
    .
    Laura, i.e. my sister ... Link
    .
    The profitability is directly influenced by two elements; i.e. the developing cost and efficiency of the entire plan to meet the segments’ needs. Link
    .
    In view of the fact that a test pressure of at least 50 bar would be indicated for bare tanks in this case, the working party favours the first alternative, i.e., reducing the filling ratio to 0.87 kg/l. Link
    .
     
  7. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    2.2 COMMA WITH OTHER ABBREVIATION OR INITIALISM
    (Back to Index)​
    Jr.
    comma Jr.
    .
    Martin Luther King, Jr., was the youngest man to have received the Nobel Peace Prize. Link
    .
    Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr., unveiled a new report with Christina D. Romer, the chairwoman of the Council of Economic Advisors, that shows that the pace of fiscal stimulus has accelerated. Link
    .
    U.S.
    comma U.S.
    .
    Mao was against Khrushchev’s ‘peaceful coexistence’ with the U.S., and this contributed to the problematic relationship between China and the Soviet Union. Link
    .
     
  8. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    :arrow: 3. COMMA WITH ADJECTIVE
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma adjective

    An adjective is a part of speech whose function it is to modify the meaning of a noun, e.g. a sunny day. A noun can be modified by more than one adjective, e.g. a bright, sunny day.

    Another noun modifier is the attributive noun, which is a noun that modifies another noun, sometimes along with adjectives, e.g., his superhuman vampire strength.

    An adjective phrase is a phrase whose head (i.e. main word) is an adjective: alone except for the baby.

    When an adjective is indirectly attached to a noun via a verb, as in She is young, it is called a predicative adjective.

    For more information about adjectives, see Wiki articles Adjective, Attributive noun and Adjective phrase.

    Below are further key word links and links to specific threads on Comma with adjective. Clicking a key word link returns a list of those threads along with related and more recent threads.
     
  9. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    3.1 COMMA WITH ADJECTIVE: GENERAL DISCUSSIONS
    (Back to Index)​
    Comma between adjectives: examples of when it is needed and when it is not. Link
    .
     
  10. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    3.2 COMMA OR AND BETWEEN ADJECTIVES
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma and adjective
    .
    ...to adopt a soft, honest straight campaign. Link
    .
    I guess it wasn't a bad place for a beautiful young widow to move beyond her loss. Link
    .
     
  11. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    3.3 COMMA BETWEEN ADJECTIVES
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma with adjective
    .
    She is wearing a short tight dress. Link
    .
    It was a bright, beautiful , sunny day. Link
    .
    Her long, dark, glossy hair fascinated me. Link
    .
    light-grayish, moderately-loamy, cultivated, forest soil Link
    .
    Retirees can start getting early, reduced benefits at age 62. Link
    .
    She is lying on her very comfortable, cushy white leather couch. Link
    .
    Would it be okay if I bring my single, handsome, intelligent, American friends? Link
    .
    Services of an experienced, professional tour manager for the duration of the tour. Link
    .
    UnitiQute is Naim's new, compact digital streaming all-in-one high-end audio player. Link
    .
    The region remains divided between nationalist-military dictatorships of varying degrees of severity, and traditional, monarchical forms of government... Link
    .
    The xxxx Foundation is an IRS-designated 501(c)(3) organization dedicated to providing private, educational and capital support to the xxxx xxxxx Performing Arts Center. Link
    .
    Obviously the Archdeacon was out to impress his visitors, for the Te Deum and the Benedictus were sung to elaborate, unfamiliar settings, which the congregation could not attempt and which seems rather beyond the choir at some points. Link
    .
     
  12. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    3.4 COMMA BETWEEN ADJECTIVE AND NOUN
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma adjective noun

    Between adjective and modified noun
    .
    The "rat race" refers to a tiring, seemingly endless, routine in an often competitive, busy environment. Link
    .
    I think many Americans would use it if they want to speak from a very strong, sort of patriotic, old-fashioned, nostalgic, feeling for the country. Link
    .
    Only the evidence of his library—the hundreds of volumes bearing in their margins 'copious notes' and forests of cross-references, written in his delicate, even, hand and dating, some of them, from hid undergraduate days—has revealed the range... Link
    .
    Between adjective and attributive noun
    .
    I listened to the original, studio version of the song. Link
    .
    They were sitting in a room with candle-lit, concrete walls. Link
    .
    He pounded against it with all his superhuman, vampire strength, so hard that the echo reverberated off the walls. Link
    .
     
  13. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    3.5 COMMA WITH PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVE OR ADJECTIVE PHRASE
    (Back to Index)​
    With predicative adjective
    comma predicative
    .
    He looks at her, happy. Link
    .
    With adjective phrase
    comma adjective phrase
    .
    He could imagine lying beside her in bed at the end of the day, holding her while they talked and laughed, lost in each other`s arms. Link
    .
    Many years ago, psychologists performed an experiment in which they put a number of people in a room, alone except for a ring toss set. Link
    .
     
  14. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    3.6 COMMA BETWEEN ADJECTIVE AND PARTICIPLE OR PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
    (Back to Index)​
    Between adjective and participle
    comma adjective participle
    .
    He held it over the screaming, white-haired man's left-hand palm. Link
    .
    Between adjective and prepositional phrase
    comma prepositional phrase
    .
    It is profoundly moving, tragicomic and heartfelt, with a harsh, melodramatic impulse at the climax. Link
    .
     
  15. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    :arrow: 4. COMMA WITH ADVERB
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word links: comma adverb

    An adverb is a word that modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective, other adverb, clause or sentence. Adverbs are often classified according to meaning. For example, everywhere is an adverb of place, now is an adverb of time, both is an adverb of degree, and maybe is an adverb of opinion.

    Conjunctive adverbs (e.g. however) join clauses when preceded by a semicolon. They are also used to introduce, interrupt or end a clause.

    Adverbs formed from adjectives by adding –ly constitute a separate category here.

    Itself and myself are pronouns, but when used for emphasis their function is adverbial.

    Note that certain words that are classified as adverbs are also pronouns (e.g. all, both, each) or conjuctions (e.g. only, though).

    For more information about adverbs, see Wiki articles Adverb, English adverbs and Conjunctive adverb

    Below are further key word links and links to specific threads on Comma with adverb. Clicking a key word link returns a list of those threads along with related and more recent threads.
     
    Last edited: Aug 26, 2013
  16. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    4.1 COMMA WITH ADVERB: GENERAL DISCUSSIONS
    (Back to Index)​
    Comma after introductory adverb: is it necessary?Link
    .
    Comma after introductory adverb or conjunction: when is it needed? Link
    .
     
  17. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
  18. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    4.3 COMMA WITH ADVERB OF PLACE (LOCATIVE ADVERB)
    (Back to Index)​
    Down
    comma down
    .
    Near the fence the ground dropped steeply, down to the pond below. Link
    .
    Everywhere
    comma everywhere
    .
    The MDGs are a framework adopted by world leaders for the international community to work together toward a common end - making sure that human development reaches everyone, everywhere, by 2015. Link
    .
     
  19. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    4.4 COMMA WITH ADVERB OF TIME (TEMPORAL ADVERB)
    (Back to Index)​
    Early
    comma early
    .
    Early that night, he went to bed. Link
    .
    Now
    comma now
    .
    So now, he would like to have a car, but he must buy a cheap one because he doesn't have a lot of money. Link
    .
    Often
    comma often
    .
    Very often, when a society adopts a new food without the food culture surrounding it, as happened when corn first came to Europe, Africa, and Asia, people get sick. Link
    .
    Foreign investors lease thousands of hectares here for intensive agriculture, at rock bottom prices. Often without worrying about the environment or the local population. Link
    .
    Today
    comma today
    .
    Today it's time to... / Today, it's time to... Link
    .
    Yesterday
    comma yesterday
    .
    Yesterday, I went to the zoo. Link
    .
     
  20. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    4.5 COMMA WITH ADVERB OF DEGREE (OR CORRESPONDING PRONOUN OR CONJUNCTION)
    (Back to Index)​
    All
    comma all
    .
    He has three albums, all of which sold over two million copies. Link
    .
    Japan's Tezuka Productions Co. and Hong Kong's Forest Line Union Holdings Co. have begun distributing three ''manga'' comics by Tezuka all of which already have Chinese translations to mobile phone users in China. Link
    .
    Also
    comma also
    .
    I like it, also. Link
    .
    Please verify the changes and, also, verify the whole application. Link
    .
    Both
    comma both
    .
    Introductory physics courses sparked my interest in fluid mechanics while the upper level course, Mechanics, escalated it, both in and out of the classroom. Link
    .
    From 1950 onwards, industrial use grew steadily to just over 1000 Km3, while domestic use rose more slowly to only 300 Km3, both far below the levels of consumption by agriculture. Link
    .
    Each
    comma each
    .
    This company is composed of 3 individual companies, each concentrating on different business areas. Link
    .
    Three cats, each of which eats seven rats, won't be hungry for long. Link
    .
    Only
    comma only
    .
    Only, a few years later his boss calls him to his office with a new assignment and he starts doubting it. Link
    .
    Too
    comma too
    .
    I like it, too. Link
    .
    Have a nice day, too. Link
    .
    It turns out we behead, too. Link
    .
    I went to university there, too. Link
    .
    There was very little time to answer too. Link
    .
    My sister loves to cook this dish for her family and I hope you will, too. Link
    .
    Finally the filler metal has a strong influence on the choice of the joint clearance, too. Link
    .
    Everyone who has dined at our house has loved these, and I guarantee you will, too. Link
    .
     
  21. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    4.6 COMMA WITH ADVERB OF OPINION (OR CORRESPONDING CONJUNCTION)
    (Back to Index)​
    Maybe
    comma maybe
    .
    Maybe, they might have kept the cooked food in the fridge. Link
    .
    Perhaps
    comma perhaps
    .
    Perhaps, he is angry. Link
    .
    Please
    comma please
    .
    Can you, please, provide me with some examples of this use? Link
    .
    Please confirm if John would be able to monitoring calls for Qu today. Link
    .
    Though
    comma though
    .
    Why would they do that, though? Link
    .
    It must be noted, though, that this is... Link
    .
    Most of them are wealthy. Though, some are poor. Link
    .
    My current obsession, though, is comedy sketch show. Link
    .
    He may have thought I was hitting on him, though, ‘cause he blushed... Link
    .
     
  22. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    4.7 COMMA WITH CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB
    (Back to Index)​
    Hence
    comma hence
    .
    In recent years, there has been renewed interest in epistemology and, hence, in the question of whether knowledge is possible. Link
    .
    However
    comma however
    .
    The rum, however, is not essential. Link
    .
    Some of us want a new system. However, not everybody agrees Link
    .
    It’s a magic trick, however, that most major pharmaceutical companies are also trying. Link
    .
    The UConn women's basketball program is among the nation's best; however, they play in one of the weaker conferences. Link
    .
    Indeed
    comma indeed
    .
    He was a very intelligent man, indeed. Link
    .
    Nonetheless
    comma nonetheless
    .
    But we had a great time, nonetheless. Link
    .
    Then
    comma then; see also section 8.6 Comma before 'then': comma splice?
    .
    We ate, then we started home. Link
    .
    You must do this, then do that. Link
    .
    I worked until 5:00. Then, I went to home. Link
    .
    He tried and tried, then eventually, he gave up. Link
    .
    If A is greater than B then the record is not valid for the XYZ to use. Link
    .
    He ran as fast as he could for as long as he could, then eventually, he gave up. Link
    .
    She takes a deep breath, makes a few steps, then dives into the swimming pool. Link
    .
    Thereby
    comma thereby
    .
    ...is calculated by equation XY. Thereby, it is assumed that.... Link
    .
    Therefore
    comma therefore
    .
    Therefore, we have decided to... Link
    .
    Therefore, we can easily understand that adverting is a mirror of the society. Link
    .
    The matter is very serious, and, therefore, it is a good job we have a solution. Link
    .
    This scholarship may be renewed, therefore, it may not be available every year. Link
    .
    The weapon, therefore, can be read as a strong indicator for a forthcoming crime. Link
    .
    John is taller than Bill; therefore, it could be assumed that John will be a better basketball player. Link
    .
    This definition does not say a lot, therefore, a slightly more elaborated version would be appreciated. Link
    .
    Thus
    comma thus
    .
    ....thus, light is abundant and provides a cozy environment. Link
    .
    He was tall and, thus, unlikely to be related to me or my short brothers. Link
    .
    Community-based programs teach youth violence control and problem solving, thus preventing juvenile delinquency by providing critical decision-making and life skills. Link
    .
     
    Last edited: Aug 26, 2013
  23. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    4.8 COMMA WITH ADVERB ENDING IN -LY
    (Back to Index)​
    Enthusiastically
    comma enthusiastically
    .
    She nods, enthusiastically. Link
    .
    Especially
    comma especially
    .
    Current knowledge of nematode fauna of these countries, and especially in the Czech republic, is quite limited. Link
    .
    I go for a walk more, especially when the weather is nice. Link
    .
    These varieties may have to be especially fine for production of specialized cakes, called high-ratio cakes, that are especially light and have good keeping qualities. Link
    .
    Obviously
    comma obviously
    .
    Obviously, many pensioners don't know about the Internet and email. Link
    .
    Respectively
    comma respectively
    .
    Formaldehyde gets into plants through air or soil adsorption, respectively, through their leaf mass or their root system Link
    .
    Specifically
    comma specifically
    .
    I like history, specifically, in the field of US history. Link
    .
    Surprisingly
    comma surprisingly
    .
    And not surprisingly, he is the most adequate student for undertaking such a difficult project. Link
    .
    Unfortunately
    comma unfortunately
    .
    Although Beth was poor, she was somehow able to manage, whereas her friend, unfortunately, could not. Link
    .
     
    Last edited: Nov 5, 2013
  24. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
  25. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    :arrow: 5. COMMA WITH AND, BUT OR OR
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word links: comma conjunction and, comma conjunction but, comma conjunction or

    The conjunctions and, but and or are coordinating conjunctions, meaning conjunctions used to introduce elements (phrases or clauses) that have the same syntactic status as their preceding elements; they are not used for subordination.

    One application of coordinating conjunctions is to introduce independent clauses, that is, clauses that could be written as sentences. Cf. She is happy, and I am happy too. She is happy. I am happy too.

    A compound predicate is a predicate with more than one verb in which the verbs share the same subject. A compound predicate is not seen as constituting independent clauses. E.g. I sat on the grass in the park and read a book.

    A comma before a coordinating conjunction indicating the final item in a list is called a serial comma or an Oxford comma.

    For more information about coordinating conjunctions, see Wiki articles Conjunction and Serial comma.

    Below are further key word links and links to specific threads on Comma with and, but or or. Clicking a key word link returns a list of those threads along with related and more recent threads.
     
  26. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    5.1 COMMA BEFORE AND INTRODUCING PHRASE OR CLAUSE
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma before conjunction and

    Introducing phrase
    .
    The gun was firmly held in his right hand and his arm resting on the armrest. Link
    .
    Different, and hence conflictual, they are, especially in the present case, as they have irreconcilable principles. Link
    .
    Introducing independent clause
    .
    I am happy, and she is happy. Link
    .
    I had a good time, and so did Mary. Link
    .
    I am poor and I am not ashamed of it. Link
    .
    Do not delay it, and think for the future. Link
    .
    The loan is $100, and then there is the interest to pay. Link
    .
    I like apples and I like bananas, but I detest those filthy tomatoes. Link
    .
    Half of the bowl blows off and the water spatters around the room. Link
    .
    He shoots them a deadly glance and they eventually get a grip on themselves. Link
    .
    It's the latest product released by the company, and it's the best thing I have used. Link
    .
    Everyone who has dined at our house has loved these, and I guarantee you will, too. Link
    .
    It takes some time to prepare a nice drink, and preparation is only a part of the story. Link
    .
    If I had gone there, I would have learned how to use this device, and now I would be able to help you. Link
    .
    All of us are very eager to see the presentation and we particularly look forward to the question period. Link
    .
    We're meeting in his Brussels office and I'm a bit nervous about it because I don't speak French very well. Link
    .
    The people who build the houses are volunteers, and the company uses donated materials and money to keep it going. Link
    .
    Thus, the military signifies God and the dead soldier, whose diligence is a hymn to the military, signifies a pious follower. Link
    .
    You have already made things clear, and it's rightly fair upon you as well as for the sake of my own spirit that I finally resign myself to that unfortunate truth. Link
    .
    First of all, teachers teach them to live with their disabilities in the modern world and students become happy to adapt to their life with such caring and loving teachers. Link
    .
    ...the man would ponder for some time in silence and then, with a wet underlip pushing out from under the pipe like that of a feeding elephant, he would answer something neither funny nor polite. Link
    .
    Introducing clause: special cases
    .
    Feed the dog, and I'll wash the dishes. Link
    .
    You can use my car or his car and remember to drive safely. Link
    .
    Sam thought the gate was closed, and the dogs couldn't escape the backyard. Link
    .
    When I go to the doctor's office, I fill out paperwork and I get my temperature taken. Link
    .
    As they were sick, and the doctor wanted them to stay in bed, they could not make the trip. Link
    .
     
  27. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    5.2 COMMA BEFORE AND FOLLOWING ANOTHER AND
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma second and
    .
    Standard and Poor's, and Moody's Link
    .
    I estimated travel expenses for 5 experts and scientists, and 3 staff. Link
    .
    While it is harder to identify and measure than IQ or experience, and certainly more difficult to capture on resume, its power cannot be denied. Link
    .
    Due to the storm, the construction suffers ruptures and collapse of non-structural elements and equipments, and significant damage to structural elements. Link
    .
    Most participants pointed out that the key financial measures are product cost and process cost, and the nonfinancial key measure is customer satisfaction. Link
    .
    Then we formulate specific hypotheses on the relationship between brand dimensions and company performance, and moderators that are expected to influence that relationship. Link
    .
    The projects offered by the program are an excellent opportunity for me to exercise my skills and knowledge and to acquire new skills and knowledge in an area I am passionate about. Link
    .
    Hence, one needs more than an undecided or undecidable conflict of moral realistic positions to deny the objectivity of morality; what one needs is a conception of the world which one takes to be objective, and with which moral realism is at odds. Link
    .
     
  28. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    5.3 COMMA BEFORE AND AFTER AND
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma before after conjunction and
    .
    They went to the park, and, if they needed anything, they'd call John. Link
    .
    The matter is very serious, and, therefore, it is a good job we have a solution. Link
    .
    I'm at the office, and, while I'm in the bathroom, some guy walks off with my iPad. Link
    .
    On the other hand, a plant can have many leaves, and, as it grows, it will thicken its stem. Link
    .
    He was annoyed with the man's behavior, and, therefore, he decided to teach him a lesson. Link
    .
    He saw us coming, and unaware that we had learned of his treachery, greeted us with a smile. Link
    .
    During our conversation you mentioned I was funny and, after having thought about it, I realized this to be true. Link
    .
    My attempt was patently in vain and as I trudged away inconsolably from Southsea Common I knew that all hope was dashed. Link
    .
    I was reading the definitions of "respect" (as a noun) on thefreedictionary.com and, after taking notice of the examples presented, wanted to ask this question regarding comma usage. Link
    .
    Three years later, she created a sensation with her huge canvases, and even though she had no painting experience, her colourful painting style quickly spread to other exhibitions. Link
    .
     
  29. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    5.4 COMMA AFTER AND
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma after and
    .
    And, everyone has the same goal: A satisfied customer. Link
    .
    I'm going to apply for promotion and, if successful, I'd love to stay in Ealing. Link
    .
     
  30. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    5.5 COMMA BEFORE BUT INTRODUCING PHRASE OR CLAUSE
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma before but

    Introducing phrase
    .
    A similar, but cheaper, solution.... Link
    .
    The film wasn't bad but atrocious. Link
    .
    I don't drive a Mercedes, but a BMW. Link
    .
    It was not me, but you, who started the quarrel. Link
    .
    No longer is the party a party of ideas, but a party which has shunned intellectuals in exchange for votes. Link
    .
    Repeat this process over several days but begin to gradually reduce the volume of your “shouting” until you can mentally “shout” stop without making a sound, but feeling the full force. Link
    .
    Introducing independent clause
    .
    John is rich, but he is still single. Link
    .
    He came early, but she came late. Link
    .
    She said it was blue, but it was red. Link
    .
    That girl is not pretty, but she is polite. Link
    .
    I love you,' I said, expecting to hear the same in return; but, there was no return. Link
    .
    As the curtain rises the lounge is empty, but Jack and Jill come in immediately, followed by Aunt Jane. Link
    .
    With digital camera you can transfer images directly to a PC but with a conventional camera you need to use a scanner. Link
    .
    Introducing clause: special case
    .
    But these are easy to find and lead to the familiar dilemma in the social sciences where we have two conflicting theories, each of which can claim positive empirical evidence in its support but which come to opposite conclusions. Link
    .
     
  31. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    5.6 COMMA BEFORE AND AFTER BUT
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma before after but
    .

    ...but despite what people may say, I like pizza. Link
    .
    I really like you, but, despite that, we can't go out. Link
    .
    He tried his best, but unfortunately, he wasn't good enough. Link
    .
    The company provides freight services but, as a carrier division, it also operates as carrier. Link
    .
    Lucre those bills might be, but as yet having been kept unspotted from the world, not of the filthy sort. Link
    .
    He decided to go all the way to his friend's house, but, as soon as he arrived, he found the door locked. Link
    .
    I am quite firm in issues of comma usage, but, in fact, there's one point I have not come to a satisfactory conclusion yet. Link
    .
     
  32. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    5.7 COMMA AFTER BUT
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma after but
    .
    But, Daniel is not coming with us Link
    .
    But, it is probable that it was in the theater or movie industry. Link
    .
     
  33. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    5.8 COMMA BEFORE OR
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma before or

    Introducing phrase
    .
    To be, or not to be... Link
    .
    Is this a pencil, or a pen? Link
    .
    I think he was trying to steal my jewelries, or my laptop. Link
    .
    Is the apple pie Mom made this one, or that one over there? Link
    .
    Introducing independent clause
    .
    Stop making noise, or you will be punished. Link
    .
    He went to the park, or he went to the garden. Link
    .
     
  34. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    5.9 COMMA BEFORE AND OR OR IN LIST: THE SERIAL COMMA
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: serial comma

    General discussions
    .
    What percentage of Americans use the Oxford comma? Link
    .
    The serial comma: opinions and experience of English speakers Link
    .
    I want to discuss health, and safety. Is this an example of the Oxford comma? Link
    .
    Before and
    serial comma and
    .
    I like A, B, and C. Link
    .
    ...apples, pears, and oranges. Link
    .
    I like apples, and oranges, and pears. Link
    .
    I love big bike, big car, and big boat. Link
    .
    Stay strong in body, mind, and spirit. Link
    .
    Women, Ethnic, and Minority Entrepreneurs Link
    .
    ...Whoopi Goldberg, Jeff Garlin, and Michael Keaton. Link
    .
    The pilot took with him a flashlight, a bottle, and a pencil for the trip. Link
    .
    I switched on the computer, started up Explorer and went to my favourite Web site. Link
    .
    Life goes back to normal, free from a daily schedule of pills and their risks and expense. Link
    .
    Start creating a new life, take the initiative in your hands, and be ready for new positive changes! Link
    .
    I have acquired knowledge in math, science, and history, and would like to acquire knowledge in music. Link
    .
    My hobbles include eating and drinking Japanese food, watching and playing football and learning and creating new things. Link
    .
    I researched what the companies are about, what they do and what I would be working for if I became a part of this companies. Link
    .
    The humanities comprise those subjects that investigate the human world, what is to be human, and how human beings relate to their environment. Link
    .
    Over the course of my career, I have held increasingly responsible software development roles including systems analyst, business analyst, and project manager. Link
    .
    In a way, the sport of soccer is a microcosm of life; the need to choose sides and belong; the struggle for order, status, and respect; and the hope that one day you'll see something phenomenal. Link
    .
    Before or
    serial comma or
    .
    The plane was flying without clouds, winds, or birds. Link
    .
    Mountain lions, commonly referred to as Pumas, Cougars, or Monsters, are soon to be extinct. Link
    .
    Employee involvement in charitable events, fundraising efforts, or other volunteer activities, are encouraged and supported by the Company. Link
    .
     
  35. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    5.10 COMMA BEFORE AND, BUT OR OR WITH COMPOUND PREDICATE
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma compound predicate

    Before and
    comma compound predicate and
    .
    I sat on the grass in the park and read a book. Link
    .
    We laid out our music and snacks, and began to study. Link
    .
    Luby held me by the arm, and briskly led me across the street to a jewelry shop. Link
    .
    I would like to pursue a career where I can use my abilities, resources, and knowledge and to achieve my goals? Link
    .
    I have actively participated in volunteer activities like serving as a youth committee leader at the American Red Cross, and being a mentor to at-risk juveniles in inner-city Baltimore. Link
    .
    Before but
    comma compound predicate but
    .
    Merdine talked tough and walked with a swagger, but was never a threat to anyone. Link
    .
    Jeff thought for a moment, but realized quickly that Tom's idea was likely their only hope Link
    .
    The action had originally been scheduled to take place at the end of 2011, but was twice delayed to give subscribers a chance to replace their devices. Link
    .
    Before or
    comma compound predicate or
    .
    There have been many arguments regarding why Metallia decided to "sell out", or turn their backs on the formula that made them famous... Link
    .
    We see that in both passages Sextus makes use of the verb, avoiding in this way any assertion that there is, or there is not, a causal link between epoche and ataraxia. Link
    .
     
  36. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    :arrow: 6. COMMA WITH APPOSITION OR ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTION
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma apposition

    Apposition is a construction in which two elements of the same kind, usually noun phrases, abut each other, with one element defining or modifying the other, e.g. This is my boss, Mr. Jonathan Andrews.

    Sometimes what seems to be apposition is something else, as in He was the husband of Mr. Assad’s only sister, a former spy chief and the deputy defense minister.

    A special construction that bears a resemblance to apposition or absolute construction is where a comma is used for a conjunction in headlines (U.S.), e.g. Moratinos, Rice show concern about RCTV case.

    An absolute construction is a word or phrase that stands isolated syntactically from the rest of a sentence without being considered ungrammatical, e.g. Eyes wide open, Christina stares at something through the windshield.

    For more information about the above, see Wiki articles Apposition, Headlinese and Absolute construction.

    Below are further key word links and links to specific threads on Comma with apposition or absolute construction. Clicking a key word link returns a list of those threads along with related and more recent threads.
     
    Last edited: Aug 26, 2013
  37. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    6.1 COMMA WITH APPOSITION: GENERAL DISCUSSIONS
    (Back to Index)​
    The implication of a comma with apposition. Link
    .
    The role of a comma before a noun phrase. Link
    .
    The decision to use a comma with apposition, does it depend on the presence of a definite/indefinite article? Link
    .
     
  38. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    6.2 COMMA, COLON, SEMICOLON OR DASH WITH APPOSITION?
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word links: apposition colon, apposition semicolon, apposition dash
    .
    Out of college, I was hired as Accounting Clerk at XYZ Company – a manufacturer of widgets. Link
    .
    Homeschooling is not a panacea, or a perfect solution, for the institutional deficiencies found in American public schools. Link
    .
    Anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder characterised by an obsession with losing weight, is common among young gymnasts and ballet dancers. Link
    .
    Since I concentrate mainly on Israel, I study the extra-legal with respect to only particular forms of colonization, the pure and ethnic models of settlers' colonialism. Link
    .
     
  39. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    6.3 COMMA WITH NAME, TITLE, DESIGNATION OR VERB PHRASE IN APPOSITION
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma with apposition

    With personal name
    comma name
    .
    Her supervisor, Susan wanted to... Link
    .
    This is my boss, Mr. Jonathan Andrews. Link
    .
    If he were to tell his wife Sasha, then... Link
    .
    ...the Chelsea centre-forward, Milton Smith... Link
    .
    Charlie Azacrul, the actor, is playing at the Bling Theatre, Croydon. Link
    .
    Sir, my friend, David Pitter is merely claiming that he was not there at the time. Link
    .
    ...at Palais Garnier, the Opera House named after the architect, Charles Garnier. Link
    .
    The acclaimed psychologist Johnson concocted an analysis of Dracula's personality. Link
    .
    One of the most notorious characters was the horse thief George Reynolds, better known as "Big Nose George. Link
    .
    Julius Caesar has just been murdered and one of the conspirators, Mark Anthony(,) has just started to deliver his speech at the funeral. Link
    .
    The French Prime Minister Francois Fillon has defended President Sarkozy's decision to deport thousands of Roma people, saying the majority of French people support the policy. Link
    .
    With other name
    .
    In the course, History of the Indies, we learned many things. Link
    .
    He proposed forming the international organization, the United Nations, to maintain world peace. Link
    .
    In 1291, the city of Saint-Jean-d'Acre, the last remaining Crusader stronghold, fell into Muslim hands. Link
    .
    R & B male group, “The Stylistics” were formed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1966 as a result of two groups, “The Percussions” and “The Monarchs, merging together. Link
    .
    With title
    comma title; see also section 18.3 Comma with quotation mark indicating title of artistic work.
    .
    In the Fleetwood Mac song, "Landslide," Stevie Nicks sings beautifully. Link
    .
    He read Fitz's book, The Fundamentals of Mechanics, on his own time. Link
    .
    Today's song is from the 1935 American film, "Curly Top," an adaptation of the famous children story, "Daddy-Long-Legs." Link
    .
    With designation
    .
    I'd like to introduce today's phrase, "kangaroo court." Link
    .
    The best-known Mongolian drink, the koumiss, is made of fermented mare's milk. Link
    .
    This technique is in use for interpreting the signal of deformation, \Delta L, and the force, F. Link
    .
    This dinosaur belongs to a group called the hadrosaurs, which are faster than the Tyrannosaurus rex, the biggest known carnivorous dinosaur. Link
    .
    An Orthodox convert to the Uniate Church, one of the leading figures in that camp over the preceding twenty years, made a scandalous attack on Greek Catholicism and publicly "converted" to Roman Catholicism. Link
    .
    With verb phrase
    .
    He has persuaded me, convinced me, to do this. Link
    .
     
    Last edited: Aug 26, 2013
  40. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    6.4 COMMA WITH APPOSITION: CASES OF AMBIGUITY
    (Back to Index)​
    Apposition or direct address?
    apposition direct address
    .
    I'll take Bachelorette #3, Chuck. Link
    .
    Apposition or comma series?
    apposition comma series
    .
    He was the husband of Mr. Assad’s only sister, a former spy chief and the deputy defense minister. Link
    .
     
    Last edited: Aug 25, 2013
  41. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    6.5 COMMA WITH ABSOLUTE CONSTRUCTION
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma absolute construction
    .
    Eyes wide open, Christina stares at something through the windshield. Link
    .
    A child only four years old, he watched in horror as his goldfish jumped out of the tank. Link
    .
    A tall, striking figure on- and off-court, Summitt commands respect wherever she goes. Link
    .
     
  42. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    6.6 COMMA IN HEADLINE
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma headline
    .
    Moratinos, Rice show concern about RCTV case Link
    .
     
  43. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    :arrow: 7. COMMA WITH CLAUSE ELEMENT
    (Back to Index)​
    A clause may be seen as grammatical unit consisting of a subject and a predicate. The subject is an expression about which something is said; the predicate is the expression that says it.

    The subject is normally a noun, noun phrase or pronoun, and the predicate is typically a verb phrase, e.g. They moved last year.

    An often necessary constituent of the predicate is the object, known as the entity upon which the subject acts, e.g. They moved the meeting.

    It is generally considered incorrect to put a comma between the subject or object and the predicate.

    For more information about clause elements, see Wiki articles Clause, Subject, Predicate and Object.

    Below are key word links and links to specific threads on Comma between clause elements. Clicking a key word link returns a list of those threads along with related and more recent threads.
     
  44. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    7.1 COMMA AFTER SUBJECT
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma subject

    With preceding comma
    .
    Immense wealth, and its lavish expenditure, fill the great house with all that can please the eye, or tempt the taste. Link
    .
    This document emphasizes that efficiency in decision-making for the management of social services, and the regulatory framework governing them, are the main factors determining their performance, quality, and sustainability Link
    .
    A system of government where the least capable to lead are elected by the least capable of producing, and where the members of society least likely to sustain themselves or succeed, are rewarded with goods and services paid for by the confiscated wealth of a diminishing number of producers. Link
    .
    Without preceding comma
    .
    Whether he can play with the team tomorrow or not, depends on his condition. Link
    .
    Children whose parents are alcoholics, copy this behaviour from their parents. Link
    .
    These blogs, can develop anticipation where their products or services are concerned. Link
    .
    Surgical resection to control symptoms and reduce the chance of the tumor spreading, should be considered. Link
    .
    Brown sugar added to the water that the rice paper is passed through, gives them a delicious caramel crunch. Link
    .
    Protecting any prime minister who loves to get close to his adoring supporters, is a headache for even the best of security details. Link
    .
    What makes the analysis of relations of power that dominate or at least have a role in literacy events, particularly difficult is the fact that... Link
    .
    A library in many people's minds, is an academic place of quiet and solemnity with an abundance of books, where people go to read alone. Link
    .
    This unfair competition is induced by the fact that countries whose wage levels are extremely low, are catching up with developed countries concerning their productivity. Link
    .
    Any critic, teacher, librarian, or poet who hopes to broaden poetry’s audience, faces the difficult challenge of persuading skeptical readers that poetry is important today. Link
    .
     
  45. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    7.2 COMMA WITH OBJECT
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma object

    After fronted object
    fronted object
    .
    Such truths, FOXFIRE made softer. Link
    .
    Me, she had dispensed from joining the group, saying, "She regretted to be... Link
    .
    Web pages, on the other hand, that reproduce genres or combinations of genres familiar in traditional media, they label as reproduced genres. Link
    .
    With shared object
    shared object
    .
    The states don't have to provide the means to commit, and thus take responsibility for, suicide. Link
    .
    I want the audience to believe that the characters on the screen are actually involved in, and reacting, to the actions shown. Link
    .
    Is it possible that both sides have spent so long being aggressive towards, and blaming, the other that the origins of the dispute have been forgotten? Link
    .
    My second purpose is to determine whether the Pyrrhonist’s quest for, and attainment of, ataraxia and his philanthropia are, as has been generally thought, essential aspects of his stance. Link
    .
     
  46. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    :arrow: 8. COMMA SPLICE
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: comma splice

    A comma splice, also called a comma fault, is the use of a comma to combine two independent clauses, e.g. Everyone is nervous, they don't know what's going to happen. The sentence itself may also be referred to as a comma splice.

    In English, although comma splices are usually frowned upon, they are accepted in certain situations, such as with short, similar clauses, a devise that may be called clause coordination, e.g. I came, I saw, I conquered.

    The difference between a comma splice and a sentence including an appositive is sometimes small, e.g. He slowed at the first turn, the turn that brought the cabins into view.

    A recurrent question with regard to comma splices is whether a sentence including a clause introduced by then counts as one.

    For more information about comma splices, see Wiki article Comma splice.

    Below are further key word links and links to specific threads discussing comma splices. Clicking a key word link returns a list of those threads along with related and more recent threads.
     
  47. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    8.1 COMMA SPLICE: GENERAL DISCUSSIONS
    (Back to Index)​
    What is a comma splice? Link
    .
    What is the difference between a run-on sentence and a comma splice? Link
    .
     
  48. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    8.2 INSTANCES OF COMMA SPLICE
    (Back to Index)​
    Yeah, you're right, it's about us. Link
    .
    He played better, that is why he had won. Link
    .
    Everyone is nervous, they don't know what's going to happen. Link
    .
    They couldn't afford to waste any more time, Snape might even now be playing Fluffy to sleep. Link
    .
    She's a widow, has a house just on the outskirts of town, the other end of Upper Streetham from Mallows. Link
    .
    All in all, I would recommend this accommodation, but I would say that until the central heating is installed, it's best in summer. Link
    .
    He also responds to those critics who argue that life materials are mere discoveries of nature and cannot therefore be patented, by blurring the distinction between discovery and invention. Link
    .
     
  49. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    8.3 IMPLIED COMMA SPLICE AND COMMA SPLICE IN DIALOGUE
    (Back to Index)​
    Implied comma splice
    splice implied
    .
    What are you, stupid?Link
    .
    What’re you a psycho?Link
    .
    Comma splice in dialogue
    splice dialogue
    .
    "That car's new, he's not sitting in it alone..." Link
    .
     
  50. Comma use Senior Member

    American English
    8.4 COMMA SPLICE OR CLAUSE COORDINATION?
    (Back to Index)​
    Key word link: splice clause coordination
    .
    It is not only acceptable, it is probably the most normal and natural way of saying this. Link
    .
    Get off the bus at the next station, walk along the road for several minutes and you can find a museum. Link
    .
    Sometimes they will be reviewed in the following session, sometimes they must be handed over between two sessions. Link
    .
    All races are given equal treatment, all use the English language, it is a common platform, nobody gets an advantage and it is also the language which has enabled us to connect to the world and get investments in. Link
    .
    This results in a tension in the art world that is largely unresolved ─ the tension between art as a satisfying mode of expression and art as a precious collectible object, between the experience of making and the experience of owning. Link
    .
     

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