Ciao! I am currently researching the use of the subjunctive mood in Italian, and I have a question that hopefully can be explained by an experienced speaker. I am having trouble understanding when to use the congiunctivo imperfetto and congiunctivo trapassato remoto moods. The book that I am using gives the following rule: 1. If the verb of the opening clause is either past tense or conditional, then the imperfetto (trapassato remoto) mood is used. Another source simply says: 2. Use the imperfetto or trapassato remoto subjunctive moods when the action contained in the secondary clause is unsure. Rule number one is understandable and concrete. Rule number two is not. Take, for instance, sentence (A) which was included as an example of the presente subjunctive mood . . . (A) Spero che lei vada alla nostra festa stasera. I hope that she is coming to our party this evening. Since the opening clause in sentence (A) is, "I hope," does this not make the action of the second clause unsure? How would that fit with rule #2, or is there a more concrete way to state that rule? Is rule #2 even correct? If only rule 1 is correct, then would sentence (B) be incorrect? (B) Non è possibile che tu nuoti in questo fiume in inverno. It's impossible for you to swim in this river in winter. Although sentence (B) is a negative statement, it is a statement of fact. If I had said, "Non penso," then obviously this is a statement of supposition, and would make the second clause, "che fossi possibile nuotare in questo fiume in inverno," since the action could be seen as doubtful. I am sooooooo confused and cannot seem to find an understandable explanation of the congiunctivo imperfetto mood . . . . BTW, When I checked the sentence (B) with Yahoo Babelfish (yes, I know it's horrible. most of the time it won't even translate using the subjunctive mood . . .), it stated that nuoti was wrong and I had to reword the phrase using nuotassi instead. Can someone explain? Mille Grazie! Shane.