I don’t know if this is true, but I heard that in some world languages, the equivalents of “yes” and “no” (especially “yes”) are seldom used to answer closed-ended questions. Instead, what happens is that the person answering the question reiterates whatever was asked in an affirmative tone of voice. Thus, if the asker needed to know whether the beef was in the fridge (as opposed to being on the dinner table), the answerer would say “In the fridge” instead of “Yes.” A few other examples like this would be: QUESTION: Are you doing your homework? ANSWER: Doing. (Yes, I am.) QUESTION: Did you call the handyman? ANSWER: Called. (Yes, I did.) QUESTION: Will you attend the reception at the hotel? ANSWER: Attend. (Yes, I will.) QUESTION: Are you at the department store? ANSWER: At the department store. (Yes, I am.) The above exchanges are simply unnatural to a native English speaker. There is no way that an affirmative effect can be achieved without using the word “Yes” or a stronger equivalent thereof such as “Definitely” or “Of course.” However, I have heard that in some languages, the above scenarios are the norm and the equivalent of “yes” might even stick out like a sore thumb in a casual conversation. Do these types of dialogues work in your language? If so, are they widespread or do they belong to a particular social class/regional dialect? In English, I don’t think there are any dialects with these kinds of speech patterns. Also, if it does exist, is there a difference in terms of the time periods these patterns were common. That is, are they modern, slightly old-fashioned, extremely archaic, etc.? Finally, what is the situation like with regard to answering questions in the negative? Does the above also apply to instances where the word “no” would be used in English?