Farmer

Discussion in 'All Languages' started by ThomasK, Jul 18, 2013.

  1. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    How do you translate 'farmer' in your language? Do you have derivations with some connotation?

    There may be several terms, as in English*:
    Dutch:

    - landbouwer (land-cultivator [lit. builder], very objective)
    - boer (general, often loaded with a connotation)
    - fairly uncommon now: hereboer ('lord-farmer'literally, a [very] rich farmer, who does not need to work on the field himselfsometimes)
    - boers (behaving in some rude way)


    *English distinguishes between peasantsand farmers, I think, which refers to poor and rich farmers, or even workers and owners. It is not quiteclear to me whether a peasant in English can own a farm.

    In French there is fermier vs. paysan, I believe. I found this interesting explanation for paysan at Wikipédia:
     
    Last edited: Jul 19, 2013
  2. DearPrudence

    DearPrudence Dépêche Mod

    IdF
    French (lower Normandy)
    Actually, in French, the PC and modern term is
    "agriculteur, agricultrice"

    "fermier, fermière" sounds a bit old (but can be used by the farmers themselves if they wish so I would say)
    and as le Larousse says, "paysan, paysanne" can have pejorative connotations.
     
  3. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    I should have remembered: you're right. It would be interesting to find out more about these (very subtle) differences: how come peasant/ paysan have that negative ring? How come fermier sounds old? Etc. Might be too broad though, lead us too far (astray ?). I do guess that 'fermier' sounds old-fashioned, because it is no longer only descriptive. The funny thing is that in Dutch politicians might refer to 'agrarische bedrijfsleiders' [agrarian firm-leaders] nowadays, rather than 'landbouwers', because the new term offers more status, more prestige...
     
  4. Rallino Moderatoúrkos

    Ankara
    Turkish
    In Turkish it's çiftçi /t͡ʃift't͡ʃi/

    It comes from the word çift, which means couple/double/two of an item. A farm is çiftlik, which suggests a field cultivated with the help of a couple of oxen. And I suppose çiftçi is the person who possesses those 'two' animals.

    There is also köylü (villager), but it can be deregatory.
     
  5. apmoy70

    apmoy70 Senior Member

    Greek
    In Greek:

    Farmer:

    A/ «Αγρότης, -τισσα» [a'ɣrotis] (masc.), [a'ɣrotisa] (fem.) --> farmer < Classical masc. noun «ἀγρότης & ἀγρώτης» ăgrótēs & ăgrṓtēs --> countryman, rustic; there existed a feminine form, «ἀγρότις» ăgrótis, reserved for the land nymphs (PIE h₂eǵ-ro-, field, cf Skt. अज्र (ajra), field; Lat. ager, field, farm > It./Sp./Por. agro, Fr. aire, Rom. agru).

    B/ «Γεωργός, -γός» [ʝe.or'ɣos] (masc. & fem.) < Classical masc. noun «γεωργός» gĕōrgós --> farmer, husbandman (in Sparta, tax farmer); Compound, fem. noun «γῆ» gê --> earth, soil, land (with uncertain etymology) + neut. noun «ἔργον» érgŏn --> work (PIE *werǵ-, work). From «γεωργός» the well-known male first name «Γεώργιος» (George), derives.

    We use A & B interchangeably. Perhaps a slight difference between the two is that an «αγρότης» can also be a pastoralist. A «γεωργός» is strictly the land cultivator.

    Edit: Rallino we too use «τσιφλικάς» [t͡sifli'kas] (masc.) for the owner of large landed estate-which is a «τσιφλίκι» [t͡si'flici] (neut.), but it's derogatory. Obviously a Turkish loan.
     
    Last edited: Jul 18, 2013
  6. Rallino Moderatoúrkos

    Ankara
    Turkish
    And you've just reminded me that we use ırgat as well, which is a Greek loan, from the word εργάτης. :)
     
  7. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    The funny thing is that a German farmer just told me that Yuri in Russian referred to George(s) in English/ French and meant 'farmer' indeed. He and his wife happened to have chose that as their dog's name, and only later found out how well it fit in with their work !
     
  8. bibax Senior Member

    Czech
    Czech:

    zemědělec (< země = land, earth, soil, related to Latin humus; obdělávati = to cultivate < dělati = to do, to make, -ec = agentive suffix) = agriculturer, a general neutral term (probably a calque from Latin agricola or Greek γεωργός) for all agricolae from the Neolithic era to the present day; zemědělství = agricultura; zemědělský (výrobek) = agricultural (product);

    sedlák (< *sědlo, usedlost = homestead, farmstead) = farmer, husbandman (I never heard the term before, husband means something else, of course). In the past (after the abolition of serfdom) the sedláks formed an important social and political class. After the communist coup d'état in 1948 they were violently forced to create the unified collective farms (with the rolníks). Now the word sedlák is a bit outdated. Sedlák is also a literary archetype (e.g. in fairy tales: rich/greedy/clever/dumb/etc. sedlák). The feminine form: selka (< *sedlka).

    statkář (< statek = homestead, estate) = a landowner, a richer sedlák;
    velkostatkář (velký = big) = a bigger statkář; both statkář and velkostatkář are outdated;

    rolník (< role = a piece of field) = a poorer villager, usually tenant of a small croft; his social status was bellow of that of the sedláks. The word rolník was widely used by the communists, the rolníks (symbolized by sickle) and the dělníks (= the factory workers, symbolized by hammer) formed the working class. The word rolník is rarely used nowadays.

    družstevník (< družstvo = co-op, collective < druh = mate, companion, partner) = coop-member. After 1948 the sedláks and the rolníks became družstevníks (in Soviet Russia kolkhoznik < kolkhoz колхоз = collective farm).

    In history there were also:

    zeman (< *zeměnín < země = land) = yeoman;
    dvořák (< dvůr = yard, court, courtyard) = free husbandman;
    svobodný (= free) sedlák, svobodník = free husbandman;
    láník = tenant of 1 lán (= oxgang, die Hufe, hoeve);
    pololáník, půlník = tenant of 1/2 lán;
    čtvrtláník, čtvrtník = tenant of 1/4 lán;
    nevolník = serf;
    etc.

    Zeman, Sedlák, Svobodník, Dvořák, Láník, Pololáník, Čtvrtník are also common Czech surnames.
     
    Last edited: Jul 19, 2013
  9. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Quite interesting, thanks !
     
  10. aruniyan Senior Member

    Tamil
    Farmer in Tamil

    uzhavar(ulavar) : from the word Ulavu(to plough), Ulakkai(the plough) - this word refers taking something inside, (ie.) making of the land fit for seeding.

    vElaalar : from the word vEl (Protect)

    vivasaayi : (from Sanskrit)
     
    Last edited: Jul 19, 2013
  11. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    So there are three words based on three different roots. I just checked whether our plough/ ploeg could have to do with two, opening up into two parts, and our etymologiebank.nl refers to that possibility. But would you be able to comment on the other two roots, and especially on the link between farming and protecting? Or does it refer to protecting the soil, as in Hebrew shamar, which seems to mean something like guarding and fig. observing ?
     
  12. aruniyan Senior Member

    Tamil


    vElaalar, vElaalanmai = Farming : in the sense of using/giving in times OF NEED.

    vivasayi : Sanskrit word vaisya (not sure about the root)
     
  13. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    The Sanskrit word probably means:
    I just found out that the band in husband has the same as Bauer/boer (German/ Dutch) :
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Jul 19, 2013
  14. arielipi Senior Member

    Israel
    Hebrew
    Hebrew:

    A vegetable farmer is - חקלאי khaqlay.
    A cattle farmer is - חוואי khavay.
    A peasant is איכר icar, also יוגב yogev.
     
  15. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    But then no shamar anymore, Arielipi ?
     
  16. ancalimon Senior Member

    Istanbul
    Turkish
    I think çiftçi is the person who "produces ~ reproduces plants and animals". As in çiftleştirmek (to cause to breed, to cause to replicate). I don't think it's directly related with "two".

    There is also the possibility that it comes from çivitçi which means "indigo producer". But I don't think so.
     
  17. Maroseika Moderator

    Moscow
    Russian
    Strictly speaking, Γεώργιος is not a farmer, but, more particularly, - a ploughman, from γεωργία - treatment of earth < γῆ - earth and ἀρόω - to plough (cf. Russian орать - the same).
    Russian Yuriy < Gyurgi < Γεώργιος.
    By the way, there is another Russian derivative from this Greek name: Yegor < Yegorei/Gegorei/Yegorgei < Γεώργιος.
     
  18. apmoy70

    apmoy70 Senior Member

    Greek
    I'm afraid both Beekes (Etymological Dictionary of Greek, p.270) and Babiniotis (Lexicon of Modern Greek, p.412) associate «γεωργός», «γεωργία» & «Γεώργιος» with «ἔργον» (PIE *werǵ-, work) and not with «ἀρόω» (PIE *h₂erh₃-, to plough cf Lat. arō; Rus. орать):
    Beekes --> «γη-ϝοργός» or «γη-ϝεργός» & Doric «γαβεργός»
    Babiniotis --> «γᾱ-ϝοργός»
    Thus, «Γεώργιος» is lit. the worker (i.e. cultivator) of land
     
  19. arielipi Senior Member

    Israel
    Hebrew
    שמר is the word for gaurd/ed, its used for guarding reasons - if one is gaurding and a farmer then hes more like נוטר noter.
     
  20. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    I see that it means 'guard' now, but could you please explain the clause "a farmer then has (?)..." ? I suppose you are suggesting farming is more than guarding.
     
  21. arielipi Senior Member

    Israel
    Hebrew
    I actually said hes[=he's].
     
  22. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    He's more like a noter then ? (I'm sorry, I cannot read the Hebrew sign)
     
  23. arielipi Senior Member

    Israel
    Hebrew
    yes.
     
  24. AquisM Senior Member

    Hong Kong
    English/Cantonese
    农夫/農夫 (nong fu) is the standard term for farmer in Chinese. It literally means farm/agriculture (农/農) man (夫).
     
  25. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    I had been wondering about this word 'noter', but now I found an explanation: it is a guard, I understand (I am sorry):
    But I understand there is no link whatsoever with farming in Hebrew (there isn't any in the languages I know either, I now realize).
     
  26. arielipi Senior Member

    Israel
    Hebrew
    Correct but a noter is used in modern hebrew for one guarding farms.
     
  27. Maroseika Moderator

    Moscow
    Russian
    Thank you very much for correction.
     
  28. sakvaka

    sakvaka Moderoitsija

    Finnish.

    maanviljelijä = farmer, 'land-cultivator'

    Historic terms:

    talonpoika = peasant, 'the boy of the house'
    maaorja = serf, 'soil slave'
     
  29. mataripis

    mataripis Senior Member

    Tagalog: 1.) Farmer= Magsasaka/magbubukid 2.) farm= Sakahan/Bukid
     
  30. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    So I guess 'mag' is a noun prefix. Isn't there some difference between the two ?
     
  31. jana.bo99

    jana.bo99 Senior Member

    Slovenia
    Cro, Slo
    Farmer

    In German: Landwirt, Gutsherr, Bauer

    In Slovenian: kmet

    In Croatian: poljoprivrednik, seljak

    Beside that Germans and Croatians say also: Farmer
     
  32. Grefsen

    Grefsen Senior Member

    Southern California
    English - United States
    Here are three words that can be used to mean farmer in Norwegian:

    bonde, gårdbruker (farm + user), landbruker (land + user)

    I've sometimes heard bonde used in a derogatory manner by Norwegians when they are referring to someone who is unsophisticated and/or lives in a small town. Two Norwegian words for a farm are gård and gårdbruk and one of the Norwegian words used for agriculture is landbruk.
     
    Last edited: Aug 6, 2013
  33. clansaorsa Junior Member

    France
    English UK
    In Scots Gaelic the word we used for farmer (the occupation of my grandfather) was gabhaltaiche. (I apologise in advance to the seemingly rather pedantic Irishman out there if my spelling is inaccurate or, God forbid, I've missed out an accent - I was never taught to write the language just to speak a little bit of it).
     
  34. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Interesting. We have gebruiken as well, but we'd never say 'een landgebruiker'. Yet, 'gebruiken' refer to the same root as 'fruit', and so implies enjoying, which I find an interesting link (because it adds a dimension beyond mere 'instrumentality'...).
     
  35. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Interesting. We have gebruiken as well, but we'd never say 'een landgebruiker'. Yet, 'gebruiken' refer to the same root as 'fruit', and so implies enjoying, which I find an interesting link (because it adds a dimension beyond mere 'instrumentality'...).

    Would you be able to comment on the origin/ structure of the word?
     
  36. rusita preciosa

    rusita preciosa Modus forendi

    USA (Φιλαδέλφεια)
    Russian (Moscow)
    Russian:
    фермер /fermer/ - the modern word for farmer, borrowed from English
    крестьянин /krestyanin/ - general word for a person who lives and works in the country (comes from the word "christian") - slightly outdated
    земледелец /zemledelets/ - lit. land-doer (someone who grows crops)
    хлебороб /khleborob/ - lit. bread-worker (someone who grows grains, specifically wheat)
    животновод /zhivotnovod/ - lit. animal-breeder (someone who takes care of farm animals)
    колхозник /kolkhoznik/ - lit. col-farm-er (soviet term for workers of collective farms); could be a derogatory term for someone unsophisticated / uneducated
    деревенский житель /derevenskiy zhitel/ - country/village dweller (general term for someone who lives in the country as opposed to the city, regardless of occupation)

     
  37. clansaorsa Junior Member

    France
    English UK
     
  38. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Thanks. Some extra questions:
    - What is the link with religion?
    -Do you other /borob/'s ?
    - Are those 'dwellers' per se farmers? (I suppose it is more like peasants, land workers, often not owning a farm or land...)
     
  39. rusita preciosa

    rusita preciosa Modus forendi

    USA (Φιλαδέλφεια)
    Russian (Moscow)
    There is a term for land owner землевладелец /zemlevladelets/ which literally means landowner. It usually means someone who owns land in the country, but in principle can mean owner of any land.
     
    Last edited: Aug 8, 2013
  40. apmoy70

    apmoy70 Senior Member

    Greek
    And a derogatory name in Greek:

    «Αγροίκος» [a'ɣrikos] (masc.) and rare «αγροίκα» [a'ɣrika] (fem.) --> lout, boorish, coarse < Byz. Greek «ἀγροῖκος» aɣroîkos (masc. & fem.) --> countryman/woman, naive person < Classical adj. «ἄγροικος, -ος, -ον» ắgroikŏs (masc. & fem.), ắgroikŏn (neut.) --> person dwelling in the fields, countryman/woman < compound, masc. noun «ἀγρός» āgrós --> field, farm (PIE h₂eǵ-ro-, field cf Skt. अज्र (ajra), field; Lat. ager, field, farm > It./Sp./Por. agro, Fr. aire, Rom. agru) + masc. noun «οἶκος» oîkŏs --> house, dwelling place, household (PIE *ueiḱ-/*uoiḱ-, house cf Skt विश् (viz), people, tribe; Lat. vīcus, village, quarter)
     
  41. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    I wonder about any connotations, especially derogatory connotations. Apmoy is just suggesting there is a derogatory name for 'farmer', but I am not sure I can recognize anything derogatory in the other examples.
     
  42. Outsider Senior Member

    Portuguese (Portugal)
    In Portuguese you can choose between:

    - agricultor (a cognate of English agriculture) from Latin literally "field cultivator" (~farmer).

    - camponês, country dweller (~peasant).

    - lavrador, ploughman.

    The latter two are somewhat old-fashioned or literary. None of these words is derogatory per se as far as I know, at least nowadays, but there is for example campónio meaning "hick".
     
  43. arielipi Senior Member

    Israel
    Hebrew
    In hebrew a derogatory word would be פלאח falakh.
     
  44. Yondlivend Senior Member

    American English
    Latin villanus seemed to develop that way in romance languages, and gave English the term villain. This word could be used to mean "farmer" in Middle English as well, and with this historic sense it exists in the form villein. I'm not aware of any that uses the word in the sense of farmer today.

    Its derogatory sense came early, as can be seen in this Old Occitan lyric:
    E tenhatz lo por vilan qui no l’enten

    And when it entered English from French (around 1300 according to etymonline) it already had (somewhat) negative connotations. There's a quote in the entry for villain which describes the semantic shift of the term in English, which may be paralleled in other languages as well:
     
  45. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Very interesting contribution. It reminds me of dorpeling in medieval Dutch, as opposed to a member of the court, a villager literally, but mainly a person form the village, a little bit like a peasant, I think, or a villain...
     

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