Further vs. Furthermore

Discussion in 'English Only' started by englishjasmin, Apr 13, 2011.

  1. englishjasmin

    englishjasmin Senior Member

    Can I use "further" in the same context as "furthermore"?

    For example:

    * Furthermore, the cost will be affected by rising commodity prices.

    * Further, the cost will be affected by rising commodity prices.
  2. panjandrum

    panjandrum PongoMod

    Belfast, Ireland
    English-Ireland (top end)
    Yes, furthermore is equivalent to further.
  3. BusManMike New Member

    Baltimore, MD
    Just because you can doesn't mean you should. Although some agree that it is perfectly acceptable to use "further" in this way, others strongly disagree. Better to use the more precise word. Besides, "furthermore" has only one meaning, and this is it. Let it do its job and leave "further" free to get on with its other pursuits ("Send me further information." "Help me further my cause." "I can't take this idea any further.")
  4. djmc Senior Member

    English - United Kingdom
    In BE I don't think one would use further in this way. One would say furthermore or moreover.
  5. Ben pan Senior Member

    :arrow: New question. Please respond to this most recent question. Thank you.
    [The moderator.] >>

    I have seen the two words many times. But sometimes get confused. Let me make up a context.

    1. I have been to America. Furthermore, I have eaten a stone.
    2. China`s economy will not overtake US in 21st century. China has a deformed economical structure. Further, It seems no political devices will rise up in the forseeable future to substantially change that situation.

    In sentence one, there is inter-relation between the two things. Furthermore is just used to supplement something, whatever it is. In sentence two, there is a progressive relation between them.

    In which case futher or furthermore can be rightly put into?
    Last edited: May 12, 2013
  6. Parla Senior Member

    New York City
    English - US
    #1 puzzles me completely. "I have eaten a stone"???

    In any event, as Panjandrum said in post #2, in this sort of context, further and furthermore are interchangeable.
  7. Ben pan Senior Member

    I wrote it myself, to form a context in which the latter clause was totally irrelevant to the former. Sorry for puzzling you.
  8. Cagey post mod

    English - US
    Furthermore (and further) suggest that what comes after it in some sense adds to what came before it. Thus, when I read your first example, I try to see a connection between the two sentences. This isn't easy, because you meant the two sentences to be unrelated. For instance, I think that maybe you are listing strange things you have done: You have been to America. You have eaten a stone. Maybe you also have learned to fly.

    Furthermore is more often used in examples like the following, where we are making a point of some kind:
    I have been to America. Furthermore, while I was there, I traveled to every state. [So you see, I know a lot about the country.]
  9. Ben pan Senior Member

    Suppose I am going to write some theoretical paper, I want to prove thesis A, in order to do that I will first mention B, and then set forth C. Considering that C is not much connected with B, and that the two relate with each other only while in the light A which we have not established yet. So, on the one hand, I want to avoid taking C as a like or a closely related thing of B, on the other I have to hint that the transition from B to C is a progress in terms of verification. Which word shall I use?
  10. Andygc

    Andygc Senior Member

    British English
    We would need to see a complete sentence to be able to see if furthermore (or further) was appropriate. In any case, further means (among other things) furthermore so if you write a sentence where furthermore is appropriate, you can always use further; it becomes a matter of personal style.
  11. Ben pan Senior Member

    I donot have an appropriate context. It seems as you concedes that further, as a conjunctive adverb, has a more broader meaning than furthermore. Here is what I think: I should use further in the case mentioned above, furthermore is not as good a choice as it.
  12. Andygc

    Andygc Senior Member

    British English
    You misunderstand. Furthermore has a specific meaning. In the context of this thread and the earlier questions in it, there is no difference in meaning between further and furthermore. Further has other meanings, not broader meaning, but they are distinct from furthermore, being more concerned with distance or extent than with the logical connection between statements that is needed for furthermore. Thus, if your proposed use of furthermore or further is similar in meaning to in addition or moreover, then it does not matter whether you use further or furthermore. It is merely a question of personal choice. My choice would usually be furthermore.
  13. Ben pan Senior Member

    Now I know clearly what you mean. Thank you very much! Questions often come out which are not particularly natural for natives, but for me to go out of them commands much labor to which I feel deeply indebted.
  14. tdbostick New Member

    Hessen, Germany
    English - USA
    In this case I'd write the sentences thus:
    1. I have been to America. I have also eaten a stone.
    2. China's economy will not overtake the US in the 21st Century. China has a deformed economic structure. Furthermore, it seems no political devices will rise up in the foreseeable future to substantially change that situation. (Note the correct use of an apostrophe, not a vowel accent mark, in 'China's' and the correct spelling of 'foreseeable'.)

    In the first sentence, two ideas that actually don't have much to do with each other are combined with 'also'. These are two things that this person did.
    In the second sentence, the flow of ideas from one sentence to the next is logical and sequential, and 'furthermore' most definitely should be used. 'Further,' would be wrong. Just because this misuse of English is getting more and more popular doesn't make it right.

    Here are some more correct uses of 'further':
    He wants to further his education by getting another Bachelor's degree.
    The project has moved further than we anticipated.
    She can walk farther than me. (When talking about literal distances, use 'farther'.)
  15. Andygc

    Andygc Senior Member

    British English
    You don't seem to have noticed the previous posts in this thread. 'Further' has been used with the same meaning as 'furthermore' since at least the 13th century. This example from the OED is a bit more recent:
    Although I would choose to use 'furthermore' in a sentence like the one Ben pan wrote and probably in this example from the OED (suitably updated), I would under no circumstances consider it wrong to use 'further'. Indeed, it would be wrong of me to do so. The choice between them is nothing more than a matter of personal writing style.
  16. tdbostick New Member

    Hessen, Germany
    English - USA
    "Further," in modern usage, has become a cliché. It is overused. This is why most posters here personally prefer "Furthermore," to "Further," to introduce a sentence. Citing a nearly 600-year-old text in Middle English written in poetic verse to fit its meter in order to justify the use of "Further," nowadays is a stretch.

    "Furthermore," is a specific usage and ideally suited for beginning sentences that continue or add to an idea expressed in a previous one.
    "Farther" is used to express literal distances.
    "Further" is used to express a greater degree or extent, something in addition to what was already said, or something at a more distant time. Some writers also use it to replace the aforementioned words, giving this one word far too many meanings, thereby resulting in it becoming a cliché.
  17. Andygc

    Andygc Senior Member

    British English
    Why do you think it is poetic verse? It's from Four Centuries of English Letters and is prose. There are plenty of more recent examples to be found. My point was that it was not, as you stated, a misuse or getting more and more popular.
    It's not a misuse, it's a standard meaning and has been for over 800 years, and it has always had a degree of popularity.

    I do actually know the range of meanings of 'further' and of (irrelevant to this thread) 'farther'. If you read this thread from the top you will find
    That seems to me to have already made your points about the meaning of "furthermore" and the meanings of "further". "Further" meaning "In addition, additionally; moreover.", as the OED puts it, is a standard meaning. It is not a cliché, but is a perfectly ordinary use of the word. You are entitled to your opinion that "furthermore" is suited to use at the beginning of sentences. That is a matter of personal choice, and as I already indicated, I agree that it is usually to be preferred in such usage. Nevertheless, there is nothing wrong, clichéd or hackneyed about using "further" for the same task.

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