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German resources and tips for writing (ß, ä, ö, ü) - 10 1/2 furious facts about the German language

Discussion in 'Deutsch (German)' started by Jana337, Oct 15, 2005.

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  1. Jana337

    Jana337 Senior Member

    Quick links:
    Post 2 - General resources
    Post 3 - Specialized dictionaries and glossaries 1 (language, economics, law, medicine)
    Post 4 - Specialized dictionaries and glossaries 2 (science, technology, computers, social science, humanities),
    Post 5 - Resources for German dialects
    Post 6 - Tips for writing
    Post 7 - Basic information on German certificates
    Post 8 - Informationen über Deutsch-Zertifikate
    Post 9 - The German speaking world - 10 1/2 furious facts about the German language

    [SIZE=+2]Suggestions and comments welcome (click)![/SIZE]

    A translation tool by one of our members
    Cut and paste German texts into it, then use it to quickly look up words that you are unfamiliar with without having to break your line of thought. The primary dictionary it uses may not have the word with that conjugation or declination, so you may have to alter the word and search again or you can click on one of the other buttons, and search for the word on those sites.

    A writing tool: You can click on an umlauted letter or ß whenever you need them.
    Last edited: Jan 11, 2011
  2. Jana337

    Jana337 Senior Member

    Bilingual dictionaries
    http://www.dict.cc/ - English-German
    http://www.pons.de/ - German - English, French, Spanish, Italian, Polish
    http://dict.leo.org/ - English-German, French-German, Spanish-German, Italian-German, Chinese-German
    http://www.webtranslate.de/ - English-German with a lot of set phrases
    http://pauker.at/deutsch - German bilingual dictionaries
    http://dict.tu-chemnitz.de/ - English-German (more than 680,000 entries)
    http://dict.tu-chemnitz.de/de-es/ - Spanish-German
    Foreignword.com - page of links to mono and bilingual German dictionaries
    http://www.lessan.org/web/all.jsp - German-Arabic, Arabic-German
    http://dictionary.sakhr.com/ - German-Arabic, Arabic-German
    http://www.lexicool.com/dictionaries_german.asp - bilingual dictionaries for less common languages
    http://books.google.com/books?id=QQjBifgMXzoC&printsec=frontcover - Mastering German Vocabulary (Google book): only parts available but still valuable: German vocabulary explained with samples in English language
    http://www.linguee.de/de-en/.html -This is a website where one can find a specific phrase in German (typed in English or German) used in a real-life context.
    http://dizionari.corriere.it/dizionario_tedesco/ German-Italian and Italian-German dictionary by the Italian publishing house Sansoni.

    Monolingual dictionaries:
    http://www.duden.de - New online content provided by Duden (important set of dictionaries and "the" reference for German spelling); much more comprehensive than it used to be (28JUL11)
    http://www.dwds.de/?woerterbuch=1&qu=&last_corpus=DWDS - monolingual dictionary - Comprehensive German language corpus
    http://www.lexilogos.com/allemand_l...ctionnaires.htm - monolingual dictionary plus synonymes
    http://www.ostarrichi.org/woerterbuch.html - the specifics of Austrian German

    Dictionaries with special functions:
    http://dict.tu-chemnitz.de/dings.cg...0&query=sch%F6n&iservice=&dlink=self&comment= - dictionary of synonymes
    http://www.alcor.com.au/german_rhyming_dictionary.asp - rhyming dictionary
    http://hypermedia.ids-mannheim.de/pls/public/gramwb.ansicht - grammar dictionary
    http://languageguide.org/deutsch/ - online picture dictionary
    http://germazope.uni-trier.de/Projects/WBB/woerterbuecher/dwb/wbgui?lemid=GA00001 - complete Grimm online (begun in 1854): of course outdated (and not using modern spelling) but still a very valuable resource for German language and etymology

    Language learning
    - for students of all levels
    http://german.about.com/library/blworttag.htm - a word a day
    http://www.lsa.umich.edu/german/hmr/vokabeln/frequent_words.html - most common German words
    http://www.cronimus.com/ - in French - grammar, vocabulary, grammatical conjugation, dictionnary, downloadable exercises (pdf format), historical documents (poems, quotes...), links, games to learn German - copyrighted but free for a personnal use.
    http://www.languagesonline.org.uk/ - Various exercises
    http://www.multikultura.org.uk/german/german.php?c=1 - German exercises, Grammar explanations, Listening practice from intermediate --> upper intermediate level. Created by the University of Cambridge.
    https://sites.google.com/site/byugerman/grammar-tutorials Brigham Young University.

    http://www.vorleser.net/ - free and legal audiobooks

    Online courses
    http://www.deutsch-lernen.com/ - interactive, for beginners and advanced learners
    http://www.deutschakademie.de/online-deutschkurs/ - online grammar training (free for registered members)

    http://hypermedia.ids-mannheim.de/ - systematic grammar, a grammar dictionary
    http://canoo.net/ - a rich grammar portal, here in English
    http://www.verbix.com/languages/german.shtml - conjugates German verbs
    http://www.wm.edu/modlang/gasmit/grammar/grammnu.html - basic level, with examples
    http://www.lsa.umich.edu/german/hmr/ - non-traditional and thorough grammar explanations
    http://www.deutschseite.de/ - grammar explanations with exercises / vocabulary lists
    http://www.gramatica-alemana.com/ - in Spanish / en español
    http://www.wordchamp.com/lingua2/VerbList.do?languageID=17 - extensive list of verb conjugations
    http://conjd.cactus2000.de/index.en.php - extensive list of verb conjugations

    http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neue_deutsche_Rechtschreibung - Rechtschreibreform in a nutshell
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_spelling_reform_of_1996 - in English
    http://german.about.com/library/weekly/aa092898.htm - in English
    http://www.ids-mannheim.de/reform/ - Institut für Deutsche Sprache, the author of the reform
    http://www.rechtschreibrat.com/- click on Aktuelles for up-to-date information

    http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/# - animation with sound
    http://www.wm.edu/modlang/gasmit/pronunciation/ - explanation with audio files
    http://www.archive.org/details/deutschesausspra00viuoft Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch (1921) Gerrman Dictionary of Pronunciation;
    Author: Viëtor, Wilhelm, 1850-1918; Herausgeber: Meyer, Ernst Alfred, 1873-1953

    http://www.spiegel.de/kultur/zwiebelfisch/0,1518,332092,00.html - Zwiebelfisch, a popular language column in Der Spiegel
    http://www.deutsche-welle.de/dw/0,,2547,00.html - Deutsche Welle (DW): news, stories, e-learning

    http://books.google.com/books?id=FKy...page&q&f=false Dictionary of German proverbs, volume 1 (Deutsches Sprichwörter-Lexikon, ein Hausschatz für das deutsche Volk, herausgegeben von Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Wander)
    http://www.archive.org/details/deuts...rich01wandgoog volume 2
    http://www.archive.org/details/deuts...rich02wandgoog volume 3
    http://www.archive.org/details/deuts...rich03wandgoog volume 4
    http://www.archive.org/details/deuts...rich04wandgoog volume 5
    Last edited: May 18, 2014
  3. Jana337

    Jana337 Senior Member

    http://www.openthesaurus.de/ - ein Open-Source-Thesaurus für die deutsche Sprache

    Encyclopedic references:

    http://www.redensarten-index.de - a very useful searchable database of idioms and proverbs
    http://www.elektronik-kompendium.de/sites/praxis/woerterbuch.php - dictionary of technical terms
    http://www.englischwoerterbuch-medizin.de/index.php - medicine
    http://www.languageguide.org/deutsch/ - picture dictionary (monolingual) with audio
    http://german.about.com/library/blgramgloss.htm - German grammar terms (English glossary with German equivalents)

    Economics and business:
    http://www.hausverwaltung-grundstuecksverwaltung.de/immobilien-lexikon/ - real estate (monolingual glossary) excellent
    http://www.festo-didactic.com/de-de...rcelang=13dict_fachgebiet=Organisation&char=A - business and organization (multilingual dictionary - German, English, Arabic, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Swedish; not all terms are available in all languages)
    http://www.hurisc.org/bkkwort/tablee.htm - economics of health, insurance etc. (English-German-French dictionary)
    http://www.pinkernell.de/glossary.htm - financial markets (glossary with english equivalents)
    http://www.proz.com/?sp=kog&kog_firs...m_pair=eng_deu - accounting terms (English-German dictionary, the other direction is here)
    http://www.investor.bayer.de/aktie/glossar/ - shares (monolingual glossary)
    http://www.ubs.com/1/g/about/bterms/content_a.html - banking and finance (English, German, Italian, French glossary) excellent
    http://boerse.ard.de/lexikon.jsp - stock exchange (monolingual glossary) excellent
    http://www.perfekt.ru/dict/e-com-d.html - e-commerce (monolingual glossary)
    http://www.learningspanish-spain.com/archivos/fusion.htm - economic policy, finance (German-Spanish dictionary)
    http://quickdic.org/index_d.html - various fields (German-English dictionary)
    http://iate.europa.eu/iatediff/SearchByQueryEdit.do - database of official EU terms (see e. g. Konfitüre discussion)

    Marketing, management, logistics:
    http://www.pluspr.de/index.php?id=0,11,0,0,1,0 - PR (monolingual glossary)
    http://www.scapackaging.de/Fachwoerterlexikon-E-D.120.0.html - packaging (English-German dictionary, the other direction is here)

    http://www.perfekt.ru/dict/jurab.html - abbreviations (monolingual)
    http://www.perfekt.ru/dict/gesetze2.html - abbreviations in public law (monolingual)
    http://www.zap-verlag.de/index.php?lat_rechtsregeln - Latin terms explained

    http://www.gesundheit.de/roche/ - general medicine and health (partly monolingual, partly English equivalents) excellent
    http://www.zahnlexikon-online.de/frameset_lexi.htm - dentistry (glossary with German explanations and English equivalents) excellent
    http://www.bdsp.tm.fr/Glossaire/Default.asp - public health, environment, hygiene (multilingual glossary - French, English, German, Spanish)
    http://www.englischwoerterbuch-medizin.de/ - general medicine (English-German dictionary) excellent
    http://german.about.com/library/blmedvoc.htm - diseases (English-German dictionary)
    http://users.ugent.be/%7Ervdstich/eugloss/DE/lijsta.html - technical and popular terms of medicine (multilingual dictionary - English, German, Danish, Spanish, French, Italian, Dutch, Portuguese)
    http://www.morbus-hodgkin.de/infoserv/deut_a.htm - general medicine (monolingual, Latin terms explained)
    http://www.hurisc.org/bkkwort/tablee.htm - economics of health, insurance etc. (English-German-French dictionary)
    http://www.yi.com/home/EysenbachGunther/wb.htm - informatics in medicine (monolingual glossary)
    http://www.pathologie-fuerth.de/Krebs/glossar.html - cancer (monolingual glossary)
    http://www.perfekt.ru/dict/sex.html - sexuality, focus on anatomy (monolingual glossary) excellent
    http://www.perfekt.ru/dict/sex2.html - sexuality, focus on behavior (monolingual glossary)
    http://www.medizinische-abkuerzungen.de/ - abbreviations (monolingual) excellent
    Last edited: Jul 21, 2009
  4. Jana337

    Jana337 Senior Member

    http://www.mathe-online.at/mathint/lexikon/a.html - mathematics (monolingual glossary) excellent
    http://www.math.uni-goettingen.de/baule/wb31.html - linear algebra (English-German dictionary)
    http://www.natur-lexikon.com/ - nature (monolingual lexicon)
    http://www.seilnacht.tuttlingen.com/Lexikon/psframe.htm - chemistry (monolingual lexicon)
    http://www.biologie-lexikon.de/Startseite.html - biology (monolingual glossary) excellent
    http://webworld.unesco.org/water/ihp/db/glossary/glu/HINDDET.HTM - hydrology (multilingual glossary - English, German, French, Spanish, Hindi, Chinese, Turkish, Portuguese, Russian, Romanian; not all terms available for all languages) excellent
    http://www-sul.stanford.edu/depts/sw...n/bedict1.html - organic chemistry (English-German dictionary) - geological terms for thermal energy (English glossary with German translations of terms]
    http://www.physi.uni-heidelberg.de/~.../glossary.html - mathematics and physics and (English-German dictionary)
    http://henked.de/maple/dictionary.htm - mathematics (English-German dictionary)
    http://www.woc.science.ru.nl/translation/ - chemistry (translations between English, German, Dutch, French, Italian, Spanish, Frysian)
    http://homepages.compuserve.de/ctmattke/dict_ed.html - rheology (English-German dictionary)

    http://www.basf-cc.at/NR/rdonlyres/7CB59A97-EA04-49E3-82AC-2073BD31D50F/54978/Woerterbuch.pdf - technology, engineering, extremely comprehensive (English-German dictionary) excellent
    http://www.wissen-elektrowerkzeuge.de/mdb/data/de/lexika/eopt/ - electronics (German glossary with pictures and English, French and Spanish translations of terms) excellent
    http://www.woerterbuch.tv - technology (English-German dictionary) excellent
    http://www.kfz-tech.de/Engl/Stichw/StichwA.htm - vehicles (glossary with German explanations of English terms)
    http://www.e-woerterbuch.de/ - engineering, technology (English-German dictionary)
    http://www.fachlexika.de/technik/mechatronik/index.html - technology (English-German dictionary, only A-C available online)
    http://www.festo-didactic.com/de-de/services/online-woerterbuch/?dict_sourcelang=13&char=A - mechanics, hydraulics etc. (multilingual dictionary - German, English, Arabic, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Swedish; not all terms are available in all languages)
    http://std.iec.ch/iec60050 - eletronics (glossary with English and French explanations and German and Spanish translations of terms) excellent
    http://quickdic.org/index_d.html - various fields (German-English dictionary)
    http://www.kfz-report.de/kfz-abkuerzungen.html - List of abbreviations used in the automotive industry (German)
    http://www.kfztech.de/abc/kfztechnikabcAD_AK.htm - More automotive industry abbreviations (German)

    http://www.yi.com/home/EysenbachGunther/wb.htm - focused on software for medicine (monolingual glossary)
    http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/d...DisplayLang=en - Windows and Office terms (dictionary of more than 40 languages; downloadable)
    http://www.abb.com/cawp/GAD02181/C1256D71001E0037C1256C8A004554E4.aspx? - fieldbus technology (monolingual dictionary although many terms are naturally in English)
    http://www.masters-consulting.de/mas...l-glossar.html - German-English IT service management glossary, searchable
    http://opensource.bureau-cornavin.com/glossary/index.html - German, English, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese Glossary

    http://www.swov.nl/rapport/ITRD/ITRD_official_English_thesaurus-alphabetic.pdf - construction, architecture (English-German dictionary, .pdf)
    http://www.baulexikon.de/dictionary/ - construction, architecture (English-German dictionary)
    http://www.basf-cc.at/NR/rdonlyres/869C8812-5827-4123-B2D4-CC6C113A4ED0/54927/Betonlexikon.pdf - everything about concrete (monolingual, .pdf) excellent
    http://www.ibl.uni-stuttgart.de/fileadmin/pdfs/Bautechnik S-D_D-S.pdf(Spanish-German civil engineering vocabulary)

    http://www.dr-krutz.de/abk.htm - abbreviations (monolingual)

    Social sciences, society, history, economics:
    http://www.dewsbery.de/Glossar/christen_1.html - Christian terminology (English-German dictionary)
    http://sites.google.com/site/glossedintranslation/ - Politics & economics glossary
    http://kruenitz1.uni-trier.de/ - Oekonomische Encyklopädie von J. G. Krünitz - German encyclopedia of the 18th and 19th century. It includes all 242 releases. It is a source in German language covering the change to the industrial age.

    Arts and humanities:
    http://www.textlog.de/woerterbuecher.html - specialized glossaries of philosophy (monolingual)

    Thematic wordlists:
    http://dict.tu-chemnitz.de/de-en/lists/index.en.html - various topics (English-German)
    http://www.lexiqueducheval.net/lexique_sommaire.html - horse terminology, German-English-French
    http://www.happychild.org.uk/freeway/german/vocab/hairoverview.htm - hair style vocabulary
    http://www.cognacguide.de/html/glossar.htm - Cognac glossary, German, English, French
    http://books.google.de/books?id=ASx...dq=related:BSBBSB10228827#v=onepage&q&f=false - Glossary of 1740, "Compendieuses und nutzbares Haushaltungs-Lexicon"
    Last edited: Mar 28, 2014
  5. Jana337

    Jana337 Senior Member

    We have finally begun a resources list for German dialects. New resources suggestions are appreciated and welcome; please contribute here.
    Resources written entirely in dialect may be included if we consider them being valuable; they are of course problematic because you need to be more or less proficient in the dialect concerned if you want to use them.

    For a short introduction on German dialects see Wiki - Deutsche Dialekte (with maps). Short articles (and in some cases longer ones) about most dialects also are available on Wikipedia.

    http://www.staff.uni-marburg.de/~naeser/sendai-dt.htm - short written samples plus audio files of German dialects (site of Marburg university which specialises on dialects)
    http://www.staff.uni-marburg.de/~naeser/dial-aud.htm - audio files for most German dialects, again hosted by Marburg university

    Dictionaries Germany:
    http://www.berlin-and-more.de/Berlin/berlinering.htm - Berlin dialect word list
    http://www.deutsch-plattdeutsch.de/wsuchen.php - Lower German dictionary, quite extensive
    http://www.plattdeutsches-woerterbuch.de/ - Lower German (Holstein) word list
    http://www.koelsch-woerterbuch.de/ - Cologne (Kölsch) word list
    http://www.hessenweb.de/index.php?id=252 - Hessian word list
    http://www.barockstadt-dresden.de/woerterbuch-sachsen/ - very short Saxonian word list, Dresden (scientifically this is the dialect group Upper-Saxonian/Thuringian)
    http://www.ghshauseniw.de/jphebel/olschowka/wöbu_schrd_alem_start.htm - Alemannic word list
    http://www.undinger.de/dictionairle/ - Swabian word list and phrases
    http://www.franken-wiki.de/index.php/Kategorie:Fränkisch-Wörterbuch - Franconian word list

    Dictionaries Austria:
    http://www.oesterreichisch.net/ - Austrian word list, maintained by www.ostarrichi.org (both Austrian standard language and dialect words)
    http://www.janko.at/Wienerisch/index.htm - Viennese, short word list
    http://www.mundart.vulkanland.at/de/steirische-mundarten/ - Eastern Styrian, a short list with audio files; focus is on Eastern Styria, still many words are known in a much broader region

    Dictionaries Switzerland:
    http://www.dialektwoerter.ch/ - Swiss German word list
    http://www.edimuster.ch/baernduetsch/woerterbuechli.htm - Berne German, short word list

    http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlinische_Grammatik - Berlin dialect, a short but still useful article
    http://www.schwaebisch-englisch.de/ - Swabian grammar plus Swabian-to-English word list and phrases
    http://wapedia.mobi/de/Bairisch - Bavarian and Austrian; a quite extensive article and for the most part well-written (some inaccuracies though)
    Last edited: Jul 21, 2009
  6. Jana337

    Jana337 Senior Member

    Read this first (sticky in Comments and Suggestions).

    For computers running Windows:

    ß: Alt + 225
    ä: Alt + 132
    ö: Alt + 148
    ü: Alt + 129
    Ä: Alt + 142
    Ö: Alt + 153
    Ü: Alt + 154


    ß: Alt + 0223
    ä: Alt + 0228
    ö: Alt + 0246
    ü: Alt + 0252
    Ä: Alt + 0196
    Ö: Alt + 0214
    Ü: Alt + 0220

    For laptops/notebooks:

    The above + by means of the Fn key, i.e. for example: Fn + u = 4 (since there is no numerical keyboard on the right side of the keyboard)

    A little easier on the Mac:
    OPTION + u, then the letter ä, ö, ü,
    OPTION + s gives ß.

    * * * * * * * *

    Suggestion for MSWord, added 2011-07-14 (thanks, PaulQ :)) :

    Last edited: Jul 14, 2011
  7. sokol

    sokol Senior Member

    Vienna, Austria; raised in Upper Austria
    Austrian (as opposed to Australian)
    Deutsche Version

    Basic information on German certificates:

    Apart from Zertifikat Deutsch (Goethe-Institut) there is the Austrian ÖSD (Österreichisches Sprachdiplom); in Switzerland certification is decentralised but coordinated by EDK (Erziehungsdirektorenkonferenz).
    Those and other certificates however are now standardised according to the Common European Framework (C.E.F.) of Reference for Languages (levels explained below); thus it has become easier to compare certificates.

    Those are the most important certificates:
    B1: Zertifikat Deutsch (and Zertifikat Deutsch für den Beruf; Goethe-Institut)
    B2: ZMP (Zentrale Mittelstufenprüfung; Goethe-Institut)
    ~B2-C2: DSH (Deutsche Sprachprüfung für den Hochschulzugang, in 3 levels; obligatory for those who want to study in Germany)
    C2: ZOP (Zentrale Oberstufenprüfung; Goethe-Institut)

    There's also the alternative Austrian system:
    A1-C2: ÖSD (Österreichisches Sprachdiplom); the Austrian certification system, available for all C.E.F. levels (and partly in cooperation with Goethe-Institut and other institutions)
    A1: Grundstufe Deutsch 1
    A2: Grundstufe Deutsch 2
    B1: Zertifikat Deutsch (with Goethe-Institut and other institutions)
    B2: Mittelstufe Deutsch
    C1: Oberstufe Deutsch
    C2: Wirtschaftssprache Deutsch

    And there's also a four-skills test (listening, speaking, reading, writing):
    TestDaF (Test Deutsch als Fremdsprache): there exist three levels, TDN3 - TDN4 - TDN5; with TDN5 in all four skills you're way beyond the requirements for studying in Germany, TDN4 is sufficient, and some universities accept TDN3

    C.E.F. levels explained (short version; for the long one see Wikipedia):
    You can check your level of proficiency through this Goethe-Institut test.
    A1 Breakthrough
    Very basic conversation skills, enough to survive on a holiday trip.
    A2 Waystage
    Basic conversation skills - equivalent to Cambridge KET exam.
    Also "false beginner" level (that is, you've learned the language some time ago but forgotten much, and you want to refresh your knowledge): usually they're categorised as A2 level, or also B1 level.
    B1 Threshold
    Sufficient skills for basic communication tasks in school and at the workplace - equivalent to Cambridge PET exam.
    B2 Vantage
    Fluent in a way that communication with native speakers works without noticeable strain for either side - equivalent to Cambridge FCE exam.
    C1 Effective Operational Proficiency
    Fluent but not quite native level - equivalent to Cambridge CAE exam.
    C2 Mastery
    Proficiency, "near-native" level - equivalent to Cambridge CPE exam.

    We do not know of any online tests for any of those certificates, but both textbooks for certificates as well as tests to check your knowledge are available from many publishers.

    Please search online or in bookstores for the exact name of the certificate you want (or need) to take, and pay attention to the C.E.F. levels: you will find plenty.
    Last edited: Apr 11, 2010
  8. sokol

    sokol Senior Member

    Vienna, Austria; raised in Upper Austria
    Austrian (as opposed to Australian)
    Englische Version

    Informationen über Deutsch-Zertifikate:

    Neben dem Zertifikat Deutsch (Goethe-Institut) gibt es auch das ÖSD (Österreichisches Sprachdiplom); in der Schweiz ist die Sprachzertifizierung dezentralisiert und wird der EDK (Erziehungsdirektorenkonferenz) koordiniert.
    Alle Zertifikate sind inzwischen aber standardisiert und orientieren sich am Gemeinsamen Europäischen Referenzrahmen für Sprachen, sodass sich die unterschiedlichen Zertifikate relativ leicht vergleichen lassen.

    Im Folgenden die wichtigsten Zertifikate:
    B1: Zertifikat Deutsch (und Zertifikat Deutsch für den Beruf; Goethe-Institut)
    B2: ZMP (Zentrale Mittelstufenprüfung; Goethe-Institut)
    ~B2-C2: DSH (Deutsche Sprachprüfung für den Hochschulzugang, 3 Stufen; verpflichtend für den Hochschulzugang fremdsprachiger Studierender in Deutschland)
    C2: ZOP (Zentrale Oberstufenprüfung; Goethe-Institut)

    Alternativ dazu das österreichische System:
    A1-C2: ÖSD (Österreichisches Sprachdiplom), mit Zertifizierungen für alle Referenzrahmen-Niveaustufen (teilweise in Kooperation mit dem Goethe-Institut und anderen Instituten):
    A1: Grundstufe Deutsch 1
    A2: Grundstufe Deutsch 2
    B1: Zertifikat Deutsch (also das Goethe-Zertifikat, in Kooperation mit mehreren Sprachinstituten)
    B2: Mittelstufe Deutsch
    C1: Oberstufe Deutsch
    C2: Wirtschaftssprache Deutsch

    Weiters gibt es einen vierteiligen Test (Leseverstehen, Hörverstehen, Schriftlicher Ausdruck und Mündlicher Ausdruck - nach dem Muster der englischen "Four Skills"-Testmethode):
    TestDaF (Test Deutsch als Fremdsprache) in 3 Stufen: TDN3 - TDN4 - TDN5; mit TDN5 in allen 4 Tests werden ausgezeichnete Deutschkenntnisse bescheinigt, die die Erfordernisse für das Studium in Deutschland übersteigen; TDN4 wird für den Hochschulzugang fremdsprachiger Studierender in Deutschland akzeptiert, TDN3 akzeptieren einige Universitäten für bestimmte Studienrichtungen

    Stufen des Referenzrahmens kurz erklärt (die lange Version gibt es in der Wikipedia):
    Das Goethe-Institut stellt einen Test zur Selbsteinstufung zur Verfügung.
    Sehr einfache Situationen im Alltag meistern, etwa auf einer Urlaubsreise.
    Erweiterte Grundkenntnisse und die Fähigkeit, Dialoge über einfache Themen zu führen - entspricht dem Cambridge KET-Examen.
    Wer vor längerer Zeit eine Sprache gelernt, aber das meiste wieder vergessen hat (d. h. also, Wiedereinsteiger), wird meist bei Niveau A2 liegen, allenfalls auch bei B1.
    Ausreichende Kenntnisse für alltägliche Kommunikationssituationen in der Schule und am Arbeitsplatz - entspricht dem Cambridge PET-Examen.
    Flüssige Sprachkenntnis, Kommunikation mit Muttersprachlern ist ohne besondere Anstrengung beider Seiten möglich - entspricht dem Cambridge FCE-Examen.
    Flexible und kompetente Sprachbeherrschung in Wort und Schrift - entspricht dem Cambridge CAE-Examen.
    Perfekte, nahezu muttersprachliche Sprachbeherrschung - entspricht dem Cambridge CPE-Examen.

    Pour les certificats français - ELF (français langue étrangère): DILF, DELF, DALF, ... - on emploie même le CECRL (Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues): A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2.

    Unseres Wissens gibt es keine Online-Tests für irgendeines dieser Zertifikate; gedrucktes Material (Lehr- und Testbücher) gibt es jedoch in Hülle und Fülle.

    Materialien für die Vorbereitung und die Tests selbst sucht man am Besten online oder im Fachbuchhandel, wobei sehr wichtig ist, auf den exakten Wortlaut des gewünschten Zertifikats bzw. die Referenzrahmen-Niveaustufen zu achten.
    Last edited: Apr 11, 2010
  9. sokol

    sokol Senior Member

    Vienna, Austria; raised in Upper Austria
    Austrian (as opposed to Australian)
    The German speaking world

    10 1/2 furious facts about the German language:

    (1) German is the official language of Germany, Liechtenstein and Austria, and one of Switzerland's four official languages. It is also an officially recognised minority language in Italy (Südtirol - Alto Adige: Southern Tyrol) and Belgium (Eastern Belgium: Eupen, Malmedy). A sizeable Germanic-speaking minority exists in France (Alsace, Lorraine), their dialects are recognised as langues régionales - which are still strong in some rural areas, especially with the older generation. Further, German also is officially recognised in Namibia, a former German colony, and it is co-official language in Luxembourg (besides French and Luxemburgish).
    Currently there are possibly around 105 million native speakers of German (minorities all over the world included).

    (2) Smaller German speaking minorities (partly recognised minorities) also exist in some Western European countries (e. g. Denmark and the Netherlands). However, of greater numbers are still those in Central and Eastern Europe as well as in Russia (with Asian part included) and Kazakhstan (many Volga-Germans - 'Wolgadeutsche' - have been deported there during World War II) as well as other former USSR states (noticeably Baltic ones), plus on the Balkans (so-called '(Donau)-Schwaben' and 'Sachsen' from Transsylvania); all those are on a steep decline now as many migrated to Germany as soon as this became possible, after the fall of the Iron Curtain.

    (3) German(ic) speaking migrant communities exist in many countries overseas: sizeable German communities exist in the United States (among those e. g. 'Pennsylvania Dutch', an old Southern German dialect of the Amish, even boasting a Wiki page of their own), noticeable Austrian communities exist in Canada and locally in the United States (Chicago is renowned for being the biggest 'Burgenland town', as this is a centre of an Austrian Burgenland migrant community - pop. (estimation) ~60,000 (that is of course only those which, supposedly, have Burgenland roots), but sizeable migrant communities really are spread all over the world - some are even big cities, like Blumenau (Santa Catarina, Brazil) which was still mostly German speaking only half a century ago; they're now still known for the annual Oktoberfest.
    There's also a more recent trend of migration to the European Sun Belt (Spain, mainly); not only of pensioners.

    (4) It is an urban myth that German had been rejected as official language of the USA by only one vote. See Zwiebelfisch about that, for those who can read German; I will not give a short summary of the article for those which can't - to keep you curious, and thus motivated for improving sufficiently to read it in the original language :) ... weeell okay, I'll give away the tiniest of hints on facts: the story is true at its core but, like it should be done in myths, has been blown up slightly.

    (5) German as a foreign language once was strong in Central and Eastern Europe, lost importance during Communism but re-gained some of its previous status there recently. Also, German is an important foreign language in parts of Scandinavia and the Benelux states, while it was and still is relatively less taught in other Western and Southern European states. For this see also the Wiki map of knowledge of German in the EU - as the map only gives figures for EU states it should be added that German also has some status as a foreign language in Russia.

    (6) German is a multicentric language, with 3 main standard varieties: those of Germany, Austria and Switzerland, and several regional ones, ranging from Southern Tyrol (basically Austrian German with some peculiarities) all the way down to insular German communities in the States (like the above-mentioned 'Pennsylvanian Dutch' which is a standardised dialect quite different from modern German standard language).

    (7) German dialects are still strong throughout the German speaking area, but status of dialects differ extremely between regions. Learners of German are well-advised to learn at least passive (if not active) competence if they intend to (temporarily) move to some regions, while at most (if at all) passive competence of local dialects is asked for in others. To oversimplify gravely, dialects are strongest in the south (in German speaking Switzerland even active competence in local dialects is highly recommended for those who intend to settle there) and weakest in the north (where competence in standard language is completely sufficient for full integration). But the situation is way too complicated to explain in a simple furious fact line. :)

    (8) The German alphabet has 26 characters, 3 umlaut characters 'ä ö ü' and one special character 'ß'. Despite the fact that this makes for 30 characters, German native speakers only count 26 letters in their alphabet (from which we might deduce, it seems, that native speakers of German aren't that good at counting :D).

    (9) The German alphabet is not phonemic, this is one of the most common misconceptions of learners: while it is phonemic to a relatively high degree as e. g. compared to English or French it is not highly phonemic as compared to, say, Slovene or Italian. Compare alphabet <> and phonemes // of standard language:
    <a aa ä e ee i ie ö ö ü ü e o oo u u> = /a aː ɛː ɛ eː ɪ iː œ øː ʏ yː ə ɔ oː ʊ uː/ (diphthongs) <au ei=ai eu=äu> /aʊ̯ aɪ̯ ɔʏ̯/
    <p b t d k g - m n ng - r l - f=v w=v s/ß s sch ch> = /p b t d k ɡ - m n ŋ - r=ʀ=ʁ l - f v s z ʃ ç=x/
    The phonemic status of /ɛ:/ is questionable, many speakers do not distinguish /ɛː/ from /eː/ in standard language, i. e. pronounce them both /eː/. Note, dialect phonemes are not included here; if they were added the list would become much longer.

    (10) The term German as such - the name of the language - changed in meaning in the course of its history (see etymonline for more details). So no, Dutch is not German, but yes, the roots of both 'Deutsch' and 'Dutch' have a common origin (and yes, Pennsylvanian 'Dutch' is, basically, German, or anyway it is definitely not Dutch; rather, it is an ancient Southern German dialect preserved in migrant communities which have been cut off from mainstream German trends for centuries). And no, Luxemburgish is not German (not anymore) as it has evolved into a separate language, and has been defined as national language of Luxembourg.

    (bonus fact) Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens, by real name) was a great fan of the German language (quotes):
    - Yes, sir, once the German language gets hold of a cat, it's goodbye cat.
    - A dream...I was trying to explain to St. Peter, and was doing it in the German tongue, because I didn't want to be too explicit.
    - I can understand German as well as the maniac that invented it, but I talk it best through an interpreter.
    - Whenever the literary German dives into a sentence, that is the last you are going to see of him till he emerges on the other side of his Atlantic with his verb in his mouth.
    - Some German words are so long that they have a perspective.
    Last edited: Jan 12, 2011
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