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Glass

Discussion in 'All Languages' started by ThomasK, Nov 18, 2012.

  1. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    How do you translate the word in your language? (Material, instrument, and others, metonyms and metaphors)

    Dutch:
    - glas (ruit = pane)
    - glas, glazen [glasses for drinking]
    - bril [= glasses, spectacles]
     
    Last edited: Nov 18, 2012
  2. bibax Senior Member

    Czech
    Czech:

    glass (material) = sklo (Old Czech stklo), from Goth. stikls, OHG stehhal (= cup/chalice, Becher);
    a (drinking) glass = sklenice, sklenka, sklenička (dim.);

    glasses = brýle, from Ger. Brille;
     
    Last edited: Nov 18, 2012
  3. DearPrudence

    DearPrudence Dépêche Mod

    IdF
    French (lower Normandy)
    In French:

    glass (material): le verre, possibly also "une vitre" (when close to "a windowpane")
    a glass (object): un verre
    glasses: des lunettes
     
  4. apmoy70 Senior Member

    Greek
    Hi TK,

    in Greek:

    Glass (material): «Γυαλί» [ʝa'li] (neut.), from the Byz. diminutive «γυαλίν» ʝa'lin (neut.), from the Classical masc. noun «ὕαλος» 'hŭalŏs and its diminutive neut. «ὑαλίν» hŭa'lin --> glass, a Mycenaean Greek word *we-a-re-ja > ϝύαλος (with obscure etymology).
    Glasses: «Γυαλιά» [ʝa'ʎa] (pl. neut.).
    Glass (object): «Γυάλινος, -νη, -νο» ['ʝalinos 'ʝalini 'ʝalino] (masc. fem. neut.) lit. "of glass" (e.g. «γυάλινο ποτήρι» ['ʝalino po'tiri] --> "[drinking] glass of glass").

    The person who wears glasses is pejoratively called «γυαλάκιας» [ʝa'lacas].
    When we utterly destroy something, we say we have turned it into «γυαλιά-καρφιά» [ʝa'ʎa karfi'a] (pl. neut.) lit. "glasses and nails".
    When we teach someone a lesson, we say we have made him/her wear glasses «τoυ/της έβαλα τα γυαλιά» [tu (masc.) tis (fem.) 'evala ta ʝa'ʎa] (lit. "I've put the glasses on him/her")
     
    Last edited: Nov 18, 2012
  5. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Interesting to read about the associations. I could just imagine using/ looking through another 'bril' (glasses) as an expression.

    Glass & nails: what could be the origin?
     
  6. ancalimon Senior Member

    Istanbul
    Turkish
    Turkish:

    glass: cam

    drinking glass: bardak

    eye glasses: gözlük (it's not related to glass. It's related to eye)
     
    Last edited: Nov 18, 2012
  7. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Could you comment on the last two words,on their precise meaning or origin? Thanks!
     
  8. ancalimon Senior Member

    Istanbul
    Turkish
    göz: eye
    gözlük: pertaining to eyes, meant for the eyes, for the eyes, fit for the eyes, ... (the suffix is lık, lik, luk, lük)



    bardak is either from Old Turkic "bar~bal" with the meaning of "carrying-sheltering-harbouring a thing from a place to another place" or from bal meaning made of clay-mud. I'm not sure.

    The oldest attested form is "bart".
     
    Last edited: Nov 18, 2012
  9. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Thanks for that information, Ancalimon, that is what I was looking for!
     
  10. ahmedcowon Senior Member

    Arabic (MSA):
    glass (material) = زجاج zojaaj
    glass (drinking) = كوب koob
    glasses = نظارة nadħ-dħaarah (from looking)

    Arabic (Egyptian):
    glass (material) = إزاز ezaaz
    glass (drinking) = كوباية kobbayah
    glasses = نضارة naddaarah
    (from looking)

    Arabic (Lebanese):
    glass (material) = إزاز ezaaz
    glass (drinking) = كباية kebbayeh
    glasses = عوينات ouaynaat
    (from eyes)
     
  11. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Could you tell us more about the origin of the glass words? The etymology perhaps?
     
  12. Youngfun

    Youngfun Senior Member

    Pekino, Ĉinujo
    Chinese/Italian - bilingual
    Italian:
    - vetro [material]
    - bicchiere [glasses for drinking]
    - occhiali [= glasses, spectacles]
    - lastra (di vetro) [=pane]

    Chinese:
    - 玻璃 [material]
    - 杯子 [glasses for drinking]
    - 眼镜 [= glasses, spectacles]

    It seems that only English uses the same word for these three.

    So in Dutch there's difference between the glass material and the glass pane?
     
    Last edited: Nov 19, 2012
  13. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Yes, there is. Are we the only ones? You can sometimes use one instead of the other, but 'ruit' is more specific...
     
    Last edited: Nov 19, 2012
  14. DearPrudence

    DearPrudence Dépêche Mod

    IdF
    French (lower Normandy)
    Please reread my post ;)
    We use use "vitre" in a car for instance.
     
  15. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Scusi, signora... I had read it well, but not thought of it while writing this... ;-(
     
  16. rusita preciosa

    rusita preciosa Modus forendi

    USA (Φιλαδέλφεια)
    Russian (Moscow)
    Russian:
    glass (substance):
    стекло /steklo/ - see Czech
    window / window pane: окно /okno/ - the root –ok-/-otch- means “eye”
    drinking glass:
    стакан /stakan/ - loanword from Turkic languages
    glasses/spectacles:
    очки /otchki/ - plurale tantum; the root –ok-/-otch- means “eye”

    Is there another meaning (e.g. disorder)? In Russian бардак /bardak/ is a slang word for disorder, chaos; the etymological dictionary says it is a loanword from Turkic for “clay pot”.
     
  17. Youngfun

    Youngfun Senior Member

    Pekino, Ĉinujo
    Chinese/Italian - bilingual
    Added "glass pane" in Italian to my previous post.
     
  18. apmoy70 Senior Member

    Greek
    I'm afraid I do not know the origin of the phrase but it's a common expression; now that I'm thinking of it, another one that just popped up in my mind is «τα έκαναν λαμπόγυαλο» [ta 'ekanan lam'boʝalo] lit. "they've turned it into broken lamp glass".
    It must also be noted that the drinking glass in Greek has nothing to do with glass, we call it «ποτήρι» [po'titi] (neut.) < Byz. Greek diminutive neuter noun «ποτήριον» [po'tiri.on] < Classical Greek masc. noun «ποτήρ» pŏ'tēr --> drinking cup (PIE base *pī-/*pō(i)-/*peh₃-, to drink; cf. Skt. पिबति (pibati); Lat. bibere > It. bere, Fr. boire, Sp. beber; OCS пити (piti))
     
  19. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    The link window pane/ eye does not seem so self-evident to me. Just based on the fact that we can see through it. Anyone?
     
  20. bibax Senior Member

    Czech
    Okno means window in most Slavic languages (oko means eye) as the first windows were mere oval holes between two wooden beams and without any glass, of course.
     
  21. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    I see... interesting! Thanks!
     
  22. e2-e4 X Senior Member

    Русский
    Addition: «око» («oko») was the Russian for "eye" in the past, but now it is «глаз» (which is pronounced very much like "glass", by the way).
     
  23. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    How interesting. Maybe 'glass' has to do with shining - and shining might be linked to eyes... Maybe...
     
  24. e2-e4 X Senior Member

    Русский
    According to Max Vasmer, the word "глаз" used to mean a little ball — and sometimes a little ball made out of glass, — which meaning is related to the meaning of a Polish cognate for a rock, a stone. The Russian word for a window does not have to have anything to do with glass — it may be just that houses are thought to look at things around them with their windows, a metaphor, sort of.
     
    Last edited: Nov 20, 2012
  25. ancalimon Senior Member

    Istanbul
    Turkish
    I don't know of such a meaning in any Turkic dialects. Although in old Turkic there is the verb "arta" meaning mulfuncion, breakdown, disorder. (and artaq meaning something which mulfunctions, is broken, is in disorder). That Russian word might be related to that.

    Today we use the word arıza (loaned from Arabic for some reason unknown to me) with the same meanings.
     
    Last edited: Nov 21, 2012
  26. bibax Senior Member

    Czech
    IMHO the slang meaning "brothel/mess/chaos" of the word бардак (bardak) in Russian (= "a glass" in Turkish) is influenced by the similarly sounding word бордель (bordeľ) with the same meaning. It is a common method that slang uses to create new slang words.

    BTW another Russian slang word for "mess/chaos" is кавардак (kavardak), also from Turkic (kavyrmak).
     
    Last edited: Nov 21, 2012
  27. 涼宮

    涼宮 Senior Member

    Sbaeneg/Castellano (Venezuela)
    In Spanish:

    Glass: vaso (from Latin vasum)
    Vidrio (from Latin vitrum)
    Lente (from Latin lens)

    And the only expression I know in Spanish with 'glass' is ahogarse en un vaso de agua, which means to make a mountain out of a molehill or a tempest in a teapot.

    In Japanese:

    For some reason I don't know Japanese uses the English word グラス gurasu. I can't understand why, did never exist glasses in Japan? I tried to look up a proper Japanese word for glass and nothing came up. That applies to the meanings ''driking vessel'' and the thing a window is made of. When it comes to the thing you use to see better you say 眼鏡 megane (lit. eyeball + mirror)
     
  28. Youngfun

    Youngfun Senior Member

    Pekino, Ĉinujo
    Chinese/Italian - bilingual
    Hi 涼宮!
    According to Wikipedia, the Japanese has the kanji 硝子 for the glass (material). Do you know how to pronounce it? Maybe it was used in ancient Japanese before the English borrowing?

    And in Spanish vaso is the drinking cup, vidrio the material, and lente the spectacles, right?
    So in Spanish you don't dinstinguish lens and spectacles? :confused: In Portuguese spectacles are called óculos.
     
  29. DearPrudence

    DearPrudence Dépêche Mod

    IdF
    French (lower Normandy)
    Please note the discussion on "glasses" on the same forum:
    glasses

    I must say I only learnt "gafas" in Spanish from Spain but it has other names throughout Latin America.
     
  30. Youngfun

    Youngfun Senior Member

    Pekino, Ĉinujo
    Chinese/Italian - bilingual
    Hi DearPrudence!
    Thanks for the link.
    Reading quickly that thread, it seems that anteojos are an arcaic term for glasses (spectacles) in Spanish, gafas is used in Spain as you said, and lentes is used in Rio de la Plata as 涼宮 said.
    So each one of you said a regional variety.

    Interesting. In Italian baldracca means slut, I don't know if it's related.
    But in Italian there is casino /ka'sino/ (lit. little home) which means both "brothel" and "mess/chaos"; not to be confused with casinò /kazi'nɔ/ which is the gambling casino.
     
    Last edited: Nov 21, 2012
  31. e2-e4 X Senior Member

    Русский
    There is no "brothel" meaning in the word «бардак», as far as I know. * The word rather refers to a misorganised state of things or to a disorganised institution (for example, a state institution). It is very similar to «кавардак», except that the former looks more large-scale and more concerned of politics and other such 'dull' questions, it makes think of a disorder which concerns the society as a whole, and the latter is more related to a particular person or a family.

    Besides, I do not quite understand what do you mean by 'slang' here. I would say that both words are 'colloquial'.

    * It turned out that I'm just too young or something to know this word in its primary meaning. Yes, the primary meaning is "brothel", but hardly anyone uses it this way nowadays. It is a colloquial word of general use, not slang.
     
    Last edited: Nov 21, 2012
  32. 涼宮

    涼宮 Senior Member

    Sbaeneg/Castellano (Venezuela)

    And nope, lens and spectacles are the same thing, be it gafas, anteojos o lentes. And as you said, anteojos is old-fashioned, I only see that word used in dubs, video games and books because it seems to be the choice considered 'neutral' for all speakers to understand.
     
  33. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Interesting hint, had not thought of glasses at first, I must admit. I had been thinking of metaphorical/ metonymical meanings of glass (material).

    Just by the way: we associate glass with clarity and with 'hardness', as in 'glashard', 'glashelder' (clear as glass).


    Interesting cultural question: is 'window' a universal concept as such ? Glass (cup) is not, cup is, I think...
     
    Last edited: Nov 22, 2012
  34. Youngfun

    Youngfun Senior Member

    Pekino, Ĉinujo
    Chinese/Italian - bilingual
    @涼宮:
    It seems that 硝子 has two readings: an English reading (gurasu), while the other one shoushi sounds like a Chinese reading, probably the original pronunciation of the two kanjis. (In Chinese it would xiao zi)
    You shouldn't be surprised if Japanese uses a loanword for "glass", they even say appu (from up)=to raise, supichi=speech, purasu=plus, akusento=accent, supootsu=sports, and a long long list.
    眼鏡 is definitely a loanword from Chinese.
     
    Last edited: Nov 22, 2012
  35. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    I happened to read about 'appuru', apple. But I still wonder if the word 'window' is original in Chinese or Japanese, with or without glass...
     
    Last edited: Nov 22, 2012
  36. Youngfun

    Youngfun Senior Member

    Pekino, Ĉinujo
    Chinese/Italian - bilingual
    I don't know for Japanese.
    Chinese has very few loanwords, windows is 窗户, while glass is 玻璃. Or glass window is 玻璃窗.
     
  37. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Did you mean that all three are loanwords? Could you comment on those ideogrammes (if it makes sense to do so)?
     
  38. Youngfun

    Youngfun Senior Member

    Pekino, Ĉinujo
    Chinese/Italian - bilingual
    Sorry, I didn't express myself well.
    I mean that Chinese has very few loanwords, and would never use loanwords for these common things, but native words.

    According Wikipedia, 玻璃 has been the word for "glass" (the material) in China since thousands of years.

    窗 is the basic word for "window".
    Modern Chinese tends to avoid monosyllabic (i.e. only 1 ideogram) words, so we usually "enrich" it, we make compounds like 窗户, which consists of window+door, actually with no additional meaning: it still means "window". Other compounds meaning window are 窗口、窗门。

    玻璃窗 is just 玻璃 + 窗 (glass + window). Here we only use the basic word for window, we don't need anymore to "enrich" it, because of the "glass" before.
    Of course you will be still understood if you say 玻璃窗户, but that would sound redundant.

    On the other hand, Japanese has A LOT of loanwords. ;)
     
  39. Tjahzi

    Tjahzi Senior Member

    Umeå, Sweden
    Swedish (Göteborg)
    Swedish is very much like Dutch and English regarding this matter. That is, there is little variation between the words.

    Material - glas [glɒːs]
    Drinking tool - (ett) glas [glɒːs]
    Pane - (glas)ruta ['glɒːsrʉːta]
    Visual tool - (ett par) glasögon ['glɒːsøːgɔn]*

    *ögon is the plural of öga - eye.
     
  40. 涼宮

    涼宮 Senior Member

    Sbaeneg/Castellano (Venezuela)
    Window in Japanese is 窓 mado, which is not a borrowing from English, fortunately. The Japanese language is weird, in my opinion, when it comes to taking loanwords. Regarding technology and stuff like that, there are many words created by their roots and thus they don't use loanwords, but with some other very common words such as 'coffe', 'juice', 'glass' they use the English words, why? who knows. But there are also many native equivalents to such borrowings which are sometimes preferred over loanwords. For instance, the usual word for 'rape' is taken from English, レイプ reipu, the proper Japanese word for that is 強姦 goukan, but it's considered formal and less strong a word, therefore it doesn't convey the seriousness of 'rape', in a newspaper, for instance.

    As for ''appuru', I've always seen the native word りんご ringo, perhaps that ''appuru'' refers to the company and not the fruit.
     
  41. 涼宮

    涼宮 Senior Member

    Sbaeneg/Castellano (Venezuela)
    Japanese does that, too. Since it's a language with few sounds it has one hell of a lot of homophones, so, to avoid extreme confusion it uses compounds words. :D
     
  42. bibax Senior Member

    Czech
    Once I read an article about the salarymen (a kind of Japanese white-collars working for corporations). The Japanese term sounds sararīman. Surprisingly the English word salaryman is a loanword from Japanese.
     
  43. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    Interesting consideration about loan words, but did I get it right that the loan word is considered stronger? -- You were right: 'appuru' is just the company, my mistake.

    As for 'mado': does it refer to the opening only? Not to the glass?
     
  44. Youngfun

    Youngfun Senior Member

    Pekino, Ĉinujo
    Chinese/Italian - bilingual
    But "coffee" makes sense, as it is an "exotic" drink, which is a loanword in more or less all the languages of the world. :D
    The Japanese used to write "coffee" in Kanji 珈琲. Some people say that the Chinese hanzi 咖啡 (pronounced ka fei) could derive from the Japanese Kanji.
    See Coffee in All languages and Etymology of Coffee

    Well, that's odd. In Chinese rape is 強姦 (qiang jian), simplified: 强奸, it's the only specific word for rape.

    You say that Japanese uses the English loanword for juice (jusu?), then I guess that "apple juice" should be something like appuru jusu. Right?

    Actually there are a lot of English words created by the Japanese and are called wasei-ego, see Wikipedia; or here and here for a more complete list.
    Some of them entered in the West, such as walkman, anime (abbr. of animation), cosplay (abbr. of costume play).
     
  45. 涼宮

    涼宮 Senior Member

    Sbaeneg/Castellano (Venezuela)
    Only to the opening. :)

    Nope! For that one you say りんご果汁 or りんごジュース, but I have never seen ''apple'' as appuru to refer to the fruit.
     
  46. mataripis Senior Member

    There are only two Tagalog words that can be used to describe an object that is made of glass. 1.) Bubog= a crystal and 2.) Salamin= Mirror or translucent glass. The rest are loan words from Spanish like Baso (Glass) and Kristal ( anything that are made of Silica)
     
  47. ThomasK Senior Member

    (near) Kortrijk, Belgium
    Belgium, Dutch
    How about window, Mataripis? Is there a Tagalog word for that?
     
  48. Encolpius

    Encolpius Senior Member

    Prague
    Hungarian
    Magyar

    1. glass (material) = üveg (maybe of Iranian origin)
    2. glass (drinking) = pohár (German < Bavarian)
    3. glass (spectacles) = szemüveg (compound < szem "eye" + üveg "glass" <German (old, Austrian?): Augenglas]
     
  49. darush Senior Member

    Hi Thomask,

    glass(material): شیشه /shishe/ or آبگینه /ābgine/; āb: water, gine:?
    glass(drinking): لیوان /livān/,
    Arabic; the most common glass
    استکان /estekān/,
    Russian; medume-size glass esp for drinking tea
    فنجان /fenjān/, Arabic; the smallest one, cup
    جام /jām/: literal drinking glass, larg(uncutted)sheet of glass

    spectacles: عینک /eynak/, from Arabic عین (eye); meaning 'pseudo eye'

    mirror: آینه /āyene, āyne/

    lens: عدسی/adasi/, عدس /adas/: lentil(Lens Culinaris)

    crystal: بلور /bolur/, Arabic; I've read the word 'bolur' is an Arabic derivation from the Greek word for 'peridot'(brilius?)
     
    Last edited: Nov 28, 2012
  50. ahmedcowon Senior Member

    Hi darush,

    the word ليوان is not exist in Arabic

    the word for 'lens'
    in Arabic is عدسة /adasah/
     

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