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Hindi/Urdu: future tenses

Discussion in 'Indo-Iranian Languages' started by tonyspeed, Sep 9, 2012.

  1. tonyspeed Senior Member

    JA- English & Creole
    The basic future tense in Hindi textbooks is described as verb stem + ending,
    where the ending is one of uuNgaa, uuNgii, oge, eNge, eNgii, ega, egii.

    example: i am going to go. - maiN jaauuNgaa(gii)

    We have another future formation for an action that is about to take place formed by oblique verb infinitive + waalaa/waalii

    example: he is about to go - vah jaanevaalaa hai

    We have yet another formation to describe actions one is going to do immediately formed by verb stem + taa/tii/tee

    example: i am going to go (right now) - maiN jaataa(ii) huuN

    And finally, we have the usage of the present continuous as referring to the future.

    I am going to go tomorrow - kal maiN jaa rahaa(ii) huuN


    The question is: In the situation where something is about to happen can all of these forms be used?

    Particularly, can one use the egaa, waalaa, and taa forms to say sentences like:

    The show is going to begin. (in 30 seconds)
    I will open the door. (right now)

    What really is the difference, if any, between the first 3?
     
  2. UrduMedium Senior Member

    United States
    Urdu (Karachi)
    Your example leads to another common from in Urdu:

    show shuruu3 huaa chaahtaa hai

    voh jaa'egaa (indefinite future)
    voh jaanevalaa hai (soon)
    voh jaataa hai (not common for future tense, unless you find some add-ons like abhii, jald hii, and so on).
     
  3. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    sho (30 saikanD meN) shuruu3 hone vaalaa hai. maiN (abhii) darvaazah kholtaa huuN!

    sho (30 seikand meN) shuruu3 hone ko hai. maiN (abhii) darvaazah kholtaa huuN!

    sho (30 seikand meN) shuruu3 hu'aa chaahtaa hai. maiN (abhii) darvaazah kholtaa huuN!

    There is a sense of immediacy in all three above.

    sho (30 saikanD meN) shuruu3 ho gaa. itne meN agar ek garmaa-garm kaafii ho jaa'e to kyaa baat hai!

    bhaa'ii show kab shuruu3 ho gaa?

    janaab sabr kiijiye. bas yahii darvaazah khulaa aur sho shuruu3 hu'aa! itnii sii to baat hai!

    bhaa'ii be-chaare ko kainsar hai. vuh bahut jiye to sirf do chaar baras hii jiye!


     
  4. marrish Senior Member

    اُردو Urdu
    sho (30 saikanD meN) (shuruu3) hone lagaa aur maiN abhii darwaazah kholne lagaa! chaabii kahaaN gum ho ga'ii!
     
  5. tonyspeed Senior Member

    JA- English & Creole
    This is interesting. I must say I don't understand this form at all - Perfective of hona followed by the general present form of chaahnaa.
    Is this form limited to this usage?
     
  6. greatbear Senior Member

    India
    India - Hindi & English
    The "huaa chaahtaa" form isn't common in Hindi - in fact, this is the first time I am hearing it. For the rest, "show shuruu hotaa hii hogaa" and "show bas shuruu hone hii vaalaa hai" are the most immediate forms in Hindi. "Show shuruu (hii) hone ko hai"/"show shuruu hone ko (hii) hai" is another immediate form, though a tad less used than the other two.
     
  7. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    I have heard it spoken on Radio, both Radio Pakistan and BBC Urdu Service.

    saami3iin-i-giraamii, subH ke aaTh hu'aa chaahte haiN. ab aap x se xabreN suniye.

    Dear listeners, it is almost eight O' Clock in the morning. Here is the news (being read) by x.

    From literature, here is an example from one of Iqbal's most famous Ghazals.

    tere 3ishq kii intihaa chaahtaa huuN
    merii saadagii dekh kyaa chaahtaa huuN

    ko'ii dam kaa mihmaaN huuN ai ahl-i-maHfil
    charaaGh-i-saHar huuN bujhaa chaahtaa huuN

    I yearn for the pinnacle of your love
    How naive if me! What am I asking?

    Oh people, my stay here is momentary
    I am the dawn-lamp, about to go out!
     
    Last edited: Sep 10, 2012
  8. UrduMedium Senior Member

    United States
    Urdu (Karachi)
    Another form used much less is: sho shuruu3 hone ko hai
     
  9. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    I think you may have missed my post 3, example 2 UrduMedium SaaHib.
     
  10. UrduMedium Senior Member

    United States
    Urdu (Karachi)
    Thanks for your polite correction, QP saahab. Indeed, I missed it.
     
  11. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Last edited: Sep 11, 2012
  12. tonyspeed Senior Member

    JA- English & Creole
    I think GB may be right about it being less frequent in Hindi. Have you ever come across this form in any Urdu grammar book you can point me to?
     
  13. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Yes, Urdu and Hindi grammar books.

    Urdu: http://archive.org/stream/agrammarhindstn00platgoog#page/n198/mode/2up

    Hindi: Outline of Hindi Grammar. R.S. McGregor (3rd edition, revised and enlarged) OUP

    Pages 151-152

    "4. With chaahnaa

    Collocations of perfective participles showing invariable final -aa with following forms of the verb chaahnaa express the idea that a given action is about to occur. There are other, more common ways of expressing this idea, and these collocations are much less frequent than any of the above three types.

    do bajaa chaahte haiN, It is about to strile two, two is about to strike.

    maiN baahar jaayaa chaahtaa huuN, I'am about to go out.
     
  14. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    marrish SaaHib, I've been trying to get my head round "hone lagaa" etc. Normally the verb "lagnaa" in this type of construction implies an action just begun. could you please elaborate a little.
     
  15. marrish Senior Member

    اُردو Urdu
    I'm trying to reconstruct my thought process. You are right to point out that this is not an example of future tense.
     
  16. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Here is an example from a letter written by Mirza Ghalib to Miir Mahdii Hussain SaaHib MajruuH.

    agar zindagii hai aur, phir mil baiTheN ge to kahaanii kahii jaa'e gii. tum kahte ho kih aayaa chaahtaa huuN. agar aa'o to be-TikaT ke nah aanaa.
     
  17. tonyspeed Senior Member

    JA- English & Creole
    Can the taa/te/tii form be used for persons other than oneself?

    For instance, can one say "vah/vo jaataa hai" for he is going now/ about to go?
    Or is this reserved for maiN and ham?
     
  18. greatbear Senior Member

    India
    India - Hindi & English
    But anyway "maiN jaataa hooN" is kind of meaningless; at the most, it would mean "I am going", not "I am about to go"! The kind of scenarios that I can think of for the phrase are like "tu jaataa hai yahaaN se yaa maiN jaaooN?" ("are you going from here or do I go?"). There is no future tense involved for any of the persons, first, second or third.
     
  19. tonyspeed Senior Member

    JA- English & Creole
    I have heard some strangeness on TV. There characters will use the general present even if the event is later on in the day.
     
  20. greatbear Senior Member

    India
    India - Hindi & English
    Without an example dialogue, if you could supply one, it's hard to envision "maiN jaataa hooN" construction used for future.
     
  21. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Yes, one can use any person in theory. It all depends on the context.

    nah jaanaa kih dunyaa se jaataa hai ko'ii
    bahut der kii mihr-baaN aate aate!*

    DaaGh Dihlavii (1831-1905)

    You did n't realise that someone is going/about to go from this world!
    Oh (so called) kind one, you have indeed taken a long time in coming

    Here the "ko'ii" is the poet (lover) and the "mihr-baaN" is the beloved. (dunyaa se jaanaa is of course marnaa).

    * Another famous couplet from this Ghazal

    nahiiN hai khel DaaGh yaaroN se kah do
    kih aatii hai Urdu zabaaN aate aate
     
  22. UrduMedium Senior Member

    United States
    Urdu (Karachi)
    Thanks for the beautiful daaGh references, QP Saahab! However I recall the first misra3 as

    nahiiN khel aye DaaGh yaaroN se kah do
     
  23. tonyspeed Senior Member

    JA- English & Creole

    I classify this as a different grammatical structure than the general present. They key is the duplication of the verb
    which gives the connotation of "in the process of coming" or "while coming".

    "phir milenge chalte chalte" - we will will meet again along the way (while in the process of motion, while journeying/traveling)
     
  24. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Apologies, I only highlighted the second line of each couplet to differentiate one "aate aate" which means "in coming" and the other "gradually". The tense I have in mind is the same as what you have in mind.."nah jaanaa kih dunyaa se jaataa hai ko'ii"..
     
  25. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    You are welcome, UM SaaHib and thank you for the correction...

    nahiiN khel ai DaaGh yaaroN se kah do
    kih aatii hai Urdu zabaaN aate aate!
     

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