Hindi/Urdu: hijRa هيجڙا हीजड़ा hījṛā

Discussion in 'Indo-Iranian Languages' started by lcfatima, Dec 12, 2013.

  1. lcfatima Senior Member

    In a teapot
    English USA
    On wikipedia it says that the etymology of hijRa is from the Arabic triliteral root hjr (the same as in hijrat or muhaajir). Platts seems to sort of indicate the same thing.

    I am a bit confused by this because Platts also says hijRa has a Persian and older Zend cognate as hiiz (P
    هيچ heć [for eći = Zend aiva+ći; S. एव+कि; but cf. Zend naêci, 'nullus,' for). How can hiiz be such an old cognate if hijRa is coming from Arabic hijrah? If it came from Arabic, how did the r go to R? It would seem more likely to me that hijRa is in fact and Indic word since it has a Zend cognate. But I can't find it or anything similar in the Sanskrit dictionary.



     
  2. Wolverine9 Senior Member

    American English
    Wikipedia is wrong. hijRaa 'eunuch' is an Indic word. cf.
     
  3. lcfatima Senior Member

    In a teapot
    English USA
    Thanks for the info.
     
  4. Faylasoof Senior Member

    Plato's Republic
    English (UK) & Urdu (Luckhnow), Hindi
    Well, if Wiki says that then it is just wrong -- it can be awfully wrong at times! Platts is of course spot-on:

    H
    هيجڙا* हीजड़ा hījṛā (cf. P. hīz), s.m. A eunuch;—a hermaphrodite (i.q. hijṛā);—adj. Unmanly; pusillanimous, cowardly.

    [* ھجڑا hijRaa]

    While the other word is ہجرہ hijrah :

    P
    هجرتhijrat (for A. هجرة, v.n. fr. هجر; see hajr), s.f. Separation (of lovers or friends); departure (from one's country and friends);—emigration to Mecca, or from a country of infidels to a land of Muslims;—the Hijra (vulg. 'Hegira'), or flight of Muḥammad from Mecca to Medina (which happened on the 16th of July, A.D. 622, and, in the reign of the Caliph Omar, was ordered to be considered as the commencement of the Muḥammadan era):—hajrat, s.f. One year.

    From the Arabic هجرة we get the Persianized ہجرہ & ہجرت .
     
  5. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    What Platts says may very well be true. I shall get back to this later. The word is "hiijRaa" by the way.
     
  6. lcfatima Senior Member

    In a teapot
    English USA
    I saw hiijRa in Platts, also. I can't say I've ever heard it said that way.
     
  7. Faylasoof Senior Member

    Plato's Republic
    English (UK) & Urdu (Luckhnow), Hindi
    Yes, we write it as hiijRaa but I've always heard it as hijRaa !

    Platts has this too:

    H
    هجڙا हिजड़ा hijṛā, s.m.= هيجڙا hījṛā, q.v.
     
    Last edited: Dec 12, 2013
  8. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    مؤلف فرہنگ آصفیہ کے مطابق لفظ ہیجڑا کا مأخذ کچھ اِس طرح ہے۔

    اصل میں ہیز تھا ۔ اِس میں رائے مثقلہ جو ہندی میں علامت تصغیر بالتحقیر ہے لگا کر ہیزڑا کر لیا جس طرح قصاب کو تحقیراً قصابڑا۔ نائی کو ناؤڑا۔ میو کو میوڑا۔ حکیم کو حکیمڑا کہتے ہیں، اِسی طرح ہیز کو ہیزڑا کر لیا۔ چونکہ جیم تازی اور زائے معجمہ کا باہم بدل ہے اور اہل ہند زائے معجنہ کی بجائےجیم تازی ہی بولتے ہیں پس اِس وجہ سے ہیزڑا کا ہیجڑا بن گیا۔

    فارسی لغات میں لغت نامہ دہخدا ایک نمایاں مقام رکھتی ہے۔ اِس کے مطابق تفصیل اِن الفاظ میں بتائی گئی ہے۔

    هیز. (ص ) حیز. (حاشیه ٔ فرهنگ اسدی ). مخنث . (برهان ) (فرهنگ اسدی ). بغا. (حاشیه ٔ فرهنگ اسدی ). حیز نیز گویند اما به زبان پهلوی حرف حا، کم آید. (حاشیه ٔ فرهنگ اسدی ). مخنث و پشت پائی . در فارسی «های » هوز با «حای » حطی بدل میشود. (برهان ) :

    گفتم همی چه گویی ای هیز گلخنی
    گفتا که چه شنیدی ای پیر مسجدی .

    عسجدی

    چه زنی طعنه که با هیزان هیزند همه
    که توئی هیز و توئی مسخره و شنگ و مشنگ .

    خطیری از فرہنگ اسدی


    یہاں بھی ہیز کے معنے وہی دیے گئے ہیں جو کہ ہیجڑا کے ہیں۔ آگے واللہ أعلم۔
     
  9. fdb Senior Member

    Cambridge, UK
    French (France)
    The etymology of hijṛā (hījṛā) is obscure. It is definitely not from Arabic hijra, nor from Persian hēč “nothing”. (Platts does not actually claim that it is from hēč; lcfatima has by oversight combined two consecutive but unconnected entries in Platts: هيجڙا and هيچ).The etymologies suggested by Turner (*hijja etc.) all have *, in other words, they are reconstructed forms that do not actually occur in Sanskrit. On the other hand, the connection with Persian hīz “effeminate, catamite”, as illustrated by the quotations in the Lughatnāma, is attractive. Maybe Persian hīz was borrowed into Hindi as hīj, then extended to hījṛā?
     
  10. lcfatima Senior Member

    In a teapot
    English USA
    That's interesting about the -Raa. Like bachhRaa or biluungRaa, I suppose.
     
  11. Wolverine9 Senior Member

    American English
    I'm wondering if Turner had ruled out a borrowing from Persian hīz for some reason. I've noticed he usually indicates if a word is borrowed from Persian for reconstructed forms, actual Sanskrit words, and individual NIA words. Some examples: 1, 2, 3.
     
  12. fdb Senior Member

    Cambridge, UK
    French (France)
    Precisely. ṛā seems to be a semi-productive suffix in Hindi.
     
  13. marrish

    marrish Senior Member

    اُردو Urdu
    Could you please tell me something more about semi-productive suffixes in Hindi? Please send me a PM as this would exceed this thread's scope.
     
  14. fdb Senior Member

    Cambridge, UK
    French (France)
    lcfatima has mentioned two examples. Here are some others (Skt. > Hindi) that I found in Turner:

    thōba > thobṛā
    pidda > pidṛā
    pōṅga > pū̃gṛā
    phakk > phã̄kṛā
    lucca > lucṛā
     
  15. Dib Senior Member

    Germany
    Bengali (India)
    Are you sure those words are Sanskrit? I'd rather guess they are (older) Hindi > Hindi.
     
  16. Wolverine9 Senior Member

    American English
    ^ They're reconstructed forms for OIA that are unattested in Sanskrit.
     
  17. Dib Senior Member

    Germany
    Bengali (India)
    I am afraid it will be off-topic here, but I doubt Turner claims them to be OIA (reconstructed or attested). They look rather MIA or early NIA, in any case. That's why I asked.
     
  18. fdb Senior Member

    Cambridge, UK
    French (France)
    Yes, Wolverine and Dib, you are both perfectly right. I should have put a * before each one of the forms in the first column. But, in defence, may I say that my intention was only to illustrate the Hindi (diminutive? derogative?) suffix -ā.
     
  19. Dib Senior Member

    Germany
    Bengali (India)
    Thanks, fdb, for your clarification. It's just some not-so-significant nitty-gritty, anyway.
     
  20. mundiya Senior Member

    Hindi, English, Punjabi
    Hi,

    Oxford English Dictionary (below) has an explanation for "hijRaa"

    < Hindi hijṛā eunuch (also as adjective in sense ‘impotent’), perhaps (via Marathi and Oriya) < Kannada heṇṇiga impotent man, coward, ultimately < Tamil peṇṭan hermaphrodite, eunuch, masculine form corresponding to peṇṭu woman.
     
  21. fdb Senior Member

    Cambridge, UK
    French (France)
    Thank you, mundia, for this. The OED (on-line version; this entry is not yet in the printed text) is really not the first place I would normally look for a Hindi etymology.

    What is indubitably correct is that Dravidian p- often (though not always) becomes h- in Kannada. There is thus no problem with the correspondence of Tamil peṇ, peṇṭu ‘woman, wife’, peṇṭaṉ ‘hermaphrodite, eunuch’, peṇṇaṉ ‘effeminate man’, with Kannada peṇ, peṇṇu, peṇḍa ‘woman’, heṇṇiga ‘impotent man, coward’, heṇṇuga ‘pimp’, etc. (Burrow/Emeneau 4395). But how do we get from Kannada heṇṇiga to Hindi hī̆jṛā? The OED article suggests that it is “via Marathi and Oriya”. But Oriya is spoken on the East coast of India, between Bengali and Telugu. It is contiguous neither with Kannada nor with Marathi. So it is most difficult to see how Oriya can have anything to do with this. This leaves us with Kannada heṇṇiga, Marathi hij̈ḍā and Hindi hī̆jṛā, which have nothing in common other than the initial h-.
     
  22. mundiya Senior Member

    Hindi, English, Punjabi
    Thank you fdb saahib. With your explanation heṇṇiga to hī̆jṛā does seem far fetched.
     

Share This Page