I would like to discuss the use of the bindi/nuqta in the Devanagari script. I have included Urdu because in India there are Urdu writings written in Devanagari. A paper by R Ahmad is a good starting point for discussing this subject : "Shifting Orthographic Practices and Muslim Identity in Delhi" It discusses the issue of representing Persian Characters in Devanagari and how Urdu relates to the Devanagari script. Some poignant quotes are: "Although the use of the bindi for representing the distinctive Urdu phonemes has been available since the nineteenth century, it has been historically contested. In 1930, Madan Mohan Malaviya, a very prominent Hindu leader and a staunch sup- porter of Hindi, wrote an editorial in his weekly newspaper Abhyudaya entitled “hɪndi mẽ bɪndi kyõ ?” ‘Why use bindi in Hindi?’, arguing against the use of the dia- critic in Hindi for the distinctive Urdu phonemes (Mehrotra 2005). In practice also, the bindi diacritic is not used in Hindi publications." In another thread, it is claimed however that the bindi forms are part of the official Hindi orthography. Where do we get this from? Is this indeed true? Also interesting to note is that there were early attempts to preserve Persian consonant sounds in the 1800s. Another interesting note is: "It is interesting to note that in Hindi the bindi is used over some graphemes to represent nasal consonants and nasalized vowels, for example, ,चं . [ʧəndr] ‘moon’ and ,माँ . [ma] ‘mother’. The diacritic is also used underneath some gra- phemes to represent retroflex sounds, for example, ,ड़., /ɽ/ and ,ढ़. /ɽh/. So the issue is more ideological than technological. Shahid Amin, a renowned Muslim his- torian, describes his frustration with Hindi publishers regarding the use of the bindi: “I have written a little bit in Hindi and every time it [the manuscript] comes back from the publisher all the bindis have systematically been taken off” (Mehrotra 2005:189)" and "The practice of not using bindis for the distinctive Urdu phonemes can be seen in Hindi books, magazines, and newspapers published from India. None of the most widely read Hindi newspapers use a bindi for these phonemes. " What evidence do we have if any that the bindi is more accepted now in Devanagari script? Another discussion that mentions some of the above information is also found at http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00urduhindilinks/txt_alok_rai_shahid_amin_1.html And finally a reaction piece in Hindi written by Balmukund Gupta in 1900 on the decision by the Nagari Pracharini Sabha to use the bindi to differentiate z and j : Hindi Men Bindi.