Natural and grammatical gender

Discussion in 'Etymology, History of languages and Linguistics (EHL)' started by Hulalessar, Apr 7, 2014.

  1. Hulalessar Senior Member

    Andalucía
    English - England
    I have been leafing through an Italian grammar and find that where the grammatical gender does not match natural gender one is required to say (where the person talked about is male) things like:

    La signora guardia è sempre molto scrupolosa.

    I can recall when being taught French that, whatever the sex of the sentry, you needed to say Elle est partie in answer to Où est la sentinelle?, but as far as I know one is not required to refer to a sentry as Madame la sentinelle when referring to a male sentry.

    Whilst there is clearly some "logic" in being strictly grammatical, referring to a male as signora strikes me as rather odd, but that is no doubt attributable to my first language lacking grammatical gender.

    Are there any other languages where one is required in certain cases to refer to males by designations normally assigned to females (and vice versa)?
     
  2. Gavril Senior Member

    English, USA
    I don't know if this is exactly what you're looking for, but in Icelandic (which has masculine, feminine and neuter genders), nouns referring to residents of a country generally have fixed masculine gender: they don't "adapt" to the semantic gender of the person in question.

    Thus,

    Hlynur er ungur Íslendingur. "Hlynur [male] is a young Icelandic person"
    Hlín er ungur Íslendingur. "Hlín [female] is a young Icelandic person"

    The masculine nominative singular ending -ur appears on the adjective in both cases.

    If you refer to a woman as an "Íslendingur", and then refer to her using a pronoun, this pronoun technically has to be hann (masculine) rather than hún (fem.). But since hann already has a more abstract meaning ("previously-mentioned grammatically masculine thing") than English pronouns like he, this isn't so strange for people who are already fluent in the language.
     
  3. jasio Senior Member

    Albeit I am not sure, what you exactly meant, in Polish some professional position names exist only in grammatical masculine forms, such as "minister", "dyrektor", "prezes" ('a president of the company'), "prezydent" ('a president of the country'), etc. Many professions names can be "feminised" using "-ka" suffix (like "aktor" -> "aktorka"), but not those mentioned above. When such words refer to women, the rest of the sentence matches actual rather than grammatical gender, such as:

    "Prezes (male) podpisał umowę"
    "Prezes (female) podpisała umowę" - both mean "the president (of a company) has signed the contract", while "-a" suffix is used to decline the verb to feminine gender in past tense.
     
  4. Frank78

    Frank78 Senior Member

    Saxony-Anhalt
    German
    It sometimes happen in German but mostly with the neuter gender.

    Das Mädchen (neuter) ist 9 Jahre alt. Es geht in die Schule. - The girl is nine years old. It goes to school.

    All dimunitives, words ending with -chen or -lein, are neuter.

    Another example where natural and grammatical gender collide are "das Kind" (the child), the old-fashioned "das Weib" (wife) which are also neuter.
     
  5. CapnPrep Senior Member

    France
    AmE
    I think you will find that many Italians find it odd, too, and it's something that comes up more often in grammar books and language forums than in real life… In signora guardia, I think the signora functions grammatically like an honorific adjective, and not as a title or form of address. You're not saying "this is someone who is a signora, and a guardia". And you cannot walk up to a male guard and call him "Signora!" :D

    The honorific feminine comes up more commonly in everyday Italian when you use Lei to address a male.
    You're right: you say Monsieur la sentinelle, Madame le juge, etc. The placement of the definite article in French makes it clear that monsieur and madame are in apposition, so you really are saying "this is a monsieur who is la sentinelle". Now, ask some French people if you have to write Monsieur la sentinelle est parti or partie, and watch them squirm…
     
  6. apmoy70

    apmoy70 Senior Member

    Greek
    Similarly in Greek, many professional position names exist only in grammatical masculine form such as «υπουργός» [ipur'ɣos] (masc.) --> minister, «δικαστής» [ðika'stis] (masc.) --> judge, «νομάρχης» [no'marçis] (masc.) --> prefect etc.

    Similarly in Greek it mostly happens with the neuter, e.g. «κορίτσι» [ko'rit͡si] (neut.) --> girl, «παιδί» [pe'ði] (neut.) --> child etc.
    And in Greek also, most diminutives are neuter.
     
  7. francisgranada Senior Member

    Slovakia
    Hungarian
    Is signora guardia really a male here or I have misunderstood something? ....

    PS. Guardia is of fem. gender in this example (both il and la guardia do exist)?
     
    Last edited: Apr 8, 2014
  8. Quiviscumque

    Quiviscumque Moderator

    Ciudad del paraíso
    Spanish-Spain
    Let us remember the celebrated masculine "midons".
     
  9. Hulalessar Senior Member

    Andalucía
    English - England
    It seems that guardia is only feminine.
     
  10. fdb Senior Member

    Cambridge, UK
    French (France)
    It might be an idea to move this to the Italian forum. It would be good to hear what native speakers think about "La signora guardia".
     
  11. Ben Jamin Senior Member

    Norway
    Polish
    1. The feminine "dyrektorka" exists in Polish, and has been widely used in colloquial speech.
    2. In Polish, the gender of the predicate follows the grammatical gender of the subject, not the sex of the person of the subject.

    The forms like "Prezes podpisała umowę" drives me mad, being a total corruption of the Polish language. It should be either "Prezes podpisał umowę" (even if it is a woman) or "Prezes Janina Kowalska podpisała umowę"

    Strangely enough, this does not work the other way. Words of feminine gender are not mistreated this way while applied to masculine subjects: Oficer policji został ranny w zamachu bombowym, Ofiara zamachu została przewieziona do szpitala. NOT: „Ofiara zamachu *został *przewieziony do szpitala”.
     
  12. Lugubert Senior Member

    Göteborg
    Swedish
    I think the Swedish word for 'nurse' qualifies for this thread. Sjuksköterska is grammatically totally female, but is invariably applied to male nurses as well. Efforts to introduce analogous male sjukskötare never made it. I think that the not too many male midwives also are grammatically female barnmorskor.

    On many if not most other occasions, a gender neutral term has established itself without too significant protests. Or, legal texts start by announcing that for convenience, '(-)man' will refer to men as well as to women.
     
  13. Gavril Senior Member

    English, USA
    It's interesting how languages with grammatical gender differences don't necessarily have lexical alternations to reflect semantic gender:


    Icelandic Slovene
    Íslendingur "Icelandic man/woman" (grammatically masculine) Slovenec "Slovenian man" Slovenka "Slovenian woman"
    talandi "speaker" (id.) govorec "speaker (male)" govorka "speaker (female)"
    læknir "physician" (id.) zdravnik "physician (male)" zdravnica "physician (female)"



    I wonder if there is any correlation between this and other features of a language?
     
    Last edited: Apr 9, 2014
  14. Hulalessar Senior Member

    Andalucía
    English - England
    What I am getting at is not so much that something which is male may be grammatically feminine and that therefore any pronoun referring to it must be feminine, but rather that the requirement is that a noun which refers to females must be used in cases like La signora guardia è sempre molto scrupolosa. I think the idea that signora is thought of as a behaving like an adjective, i.e. that signore and signora are thought of as being the same word, which in a sense they are, seems a reasonable explanation. A speaker whose language has etymologically unrelated words for Mr and Mrs (or in the case of English where the etymological connection is not immediately apparent) is going to think of signore and signora as two distinct words and therefore find it odd. It would be interesting to know if the rule is one thought up by some academy.
     
  15. Gavril Senior Member

    English, USA
    A speaker of English (who isn't used to hearing/speaking other languages) won't be familiar with grammatical gender to begin with, and therefore s/he won't be used to the idea of "guard" having a specific gender. I'm not sure how relevant the irregularity between "Mr." and "Mrs." is.

    It might be more interesting to see a Spanish speaker's reaction to the Italian use of "signora guardia", since the connection between "señor" and "señora" is transparent, but Spanish "guardia" in the sense of an individual guard (rather than a team or official body of guards) is masculine.
     
  16. merquiades

    merquiades Senior Member

    France
    USA Northeast
    You can use both un(a) guardia civil, depending on the biological gender of the individual guard, but la guardia civil (la gendarmerie as a corps) is feminine.

    Another example which is puzzling to people whose native language doesn't have grammatical gender are words like la víctima/ la victime/ la vittima and la persona/ la personne. Even if you know the victim/person is a man you still must say está muerta/ est morte/ è morta to make the noun and adjective agree grammatically.

    There is discussion here on the Italian formal Lei. You need to say Le scivo per tenerLa informata even if you are talking to a man since Lei in essence is feminine (she)
     
  17. apmoy70

    apmoy70 Senior Member

    Greek
    Greek
    «Έλληνας» ['elinas] (learned, «Έλλην» ['elin]) "Greek-man" (gramatically masculine) «Ελληνίδα» [eli'niða] (Katharevousa form, «Ελληνίς» [eli'nis]) "Greek-woman" (gramatically feminine)​
    «Ομιλητής» [omili'tis] "male speaker" (gramatically masculine) «Ομιλήτρια» [omi'litri.a] "female speaker" (gramatically feminine)​



    but...
    Greek
    «Ιατρός» [i.a'tros] "male & female physician" (there's also the colloquialism «γιατρίνα» [ʝa'trina] "female physician" and the rustic «γιατρέσσα» [[ʝa'tresa] "female physician")
    «Μηχανικός» [mixani'kos] "male & female engineer"
    «Ηθοποιός» [iθopi'os] "actor/actress"

    In general, Greek nouns of the Classical second declension are identical in both ancient and modern Greek (masculine and feminine nouns that have the suffix «-ος»).
     
  18. Gavril Senior Member

    English, USA
    I tried to confirm whether guardia had flexible gender, but for some reason, WR's Spanish-English dictionary only lists it as "nm" (masculine) rather than "nmf" (masc. or fem.), and RAE doesn't list guardia as meaning "individual guard" at all except in specific phrases like guardia civil.

    Maybe the widespread use of lei makes cases like signora guardia seem less strange than they otherwise would?
     
  19. francisgranada Senior Member

    Slovakia
    Hungarian
    Maybe yes, but it is still not the same as to say e.g. señora víctima (for illustration only) speaking about a man ...

    I think I understand CapnPrep's explanation (#5), however spontaneousely I would surely say il signor guardia (speaking about a man) even in honorific meaning, because signore is not an adjetive that has to match the grammatical gender of the following noun. I can hardly imagine, for example, il signor giudice instead of la signora giudice when speaking about a woman (giudice masc. = judge) ...
     
  20. Lugubert Senior Member

    Göteborg
    Swedish
    Perhaps thread related: I think that grammatical gender should trump natural gender in for example professor emeritus. I apply that description to males as well as to females. Swedish academia often refers to some professor emerita, which I regard as a newfangled hybrid. If you today want to change Latin, why not use professora emerita (or whatevs, I know not to next no Latin).

    And I stubbornly inflect data as a plural word.

    I'm amused by the German practice of referring to any colleague M/F translator of mine as ÜbersetzerIn.
     
  21. francisgranada Senior Member

    Slovakia
    Hungarian
    From DRAE:
    com. Individuo de este cuerpo.(i.e. de guardia civil)
    com. Individuo que pertenece a este cuerpo. (i.e. guardia municipal)

    com - nombre común en cuanto al género

    P.S. I think these examples are enough for our purposes, as I don't think (maybe I am wrong ...) that a common Spaniard, before using the noun guardia, will try to verify if he/she is really a member of the guardia civil or municipal, and nothing else ...
     
    Last edited: Apr 12, 2014
  22. Quiviscumque

    Quiviscumque Moderator

    Ciudad del paraíso
    Spanish-Spain
    Because the "correct" word to denote a person is GUARDA (marked com. in the DRAE, that is, both femenine and masculine); however, GUARDIA has conquered this meaning, too, and the RAE has finally acknowledged that fact (see http://lema.rae.es/drae/?val=guardia "Artículo enmendado").
     
  23. Gavril Senior Member

    English, USA


    Yes, just as I wrote, DRAE acknowledges specific phrases like guardia civil / municipal etc. in which guardia means "(individual) guard" and has flexible gender, but it doesn't list this meaning among the basic definitions at the start of the entry (except in the amended version of the entry, which I didn't see at first).
     
  24. fdb Senior Member

    Cambridge, UK
    French (France)
  25. CapnPrep Senior Member

    France
    AmE
    For the moment, il signor guardia and la signora giudice are considered incorrect in Italian, but since some speakers find the correct forms awkward, the standard usage may change (or people may just decide that neither signore nor signora can be used appropriately in such contexts). Who knows?
    Of the two, professor emerita is in fact the more conservative solution, since it is very common for Latin 3rd declension forms to be epicene. Latin does not have a rule of creating feminine forms by adding -a to a 3rd declension masculine (and turning it into a 1st declension form), and that is what you would need to create professora.
     
  26. Angelo di fuoco Senior Member

    Germany
    Russian & German (GER) bilingual
    Is there a rule how to form feminine counterparts to words ending in -or? If it's -tor, it's (almost) always -trix, but what if the masculine form is somewhat irregular like in professor?
     
  27. fdb Senior Member

    Cambridge, UK
    French (France)
  28. CapnPrep Senior Member

    France
    AmE
    Most supinum stems in -s simply admit no feminine agent noun… :( See e.g. A&G 236.
    But it's actually on-topic in this thread (by which I mean it totally ignores the original topic in the same way as most of the other replies :p).
     
    Last edited: Apr 13, 2014
  29. thegreathoo Senior Member

    Srpski
    In Serb/Cro/Bos I can only think of one case, midwife (primalja, babica). A male nurse working in that field would always be referred to in female form because there is no male form.

    There are a few cases of grammatically feminine nouns that are used for both males and females. One examples is a word for a tradesman (zanatlija). This word is grammatically feminine but naturally genderless or even masculine since tradesmen are mostly men.
     
    Last edited: Apr 13, 2014
  30. caelum

    caelum Senior Member

    Northwestern Ontario
    Canadian English
    Could "guardia" in Spanish be similar to "policía" in that we can have "la policía" to denote the police force in general but "un policía" to denote a single police man (and "una policía" for a police woman).
     
  31. francisgranada Senior Member

    Slovakia
    Hungarian
    Yes. For example, there are 29 900 occurrences of "la signora giudice" and 69 700 occurrences of "il signor giudice" in Google. Supposing that most of the judges are/were men (males), the proportion around 3:7 may in theory even correspond to the proportion of the number of female judges to male judges. All in all, the usage of "la signora giudice" seems to be very common in Italian ...
     
    Last edited: Apr 13, 2014
  32. merquiades

    merquiades Senior Member

    France
    USA Northeast
    That is the way I understand it and use it. Un(a) guardia but la guardia civil, un(a) policía but la policía, and un(a) guía but la guía (book) [yes, the last one is not really the same, I know] There probably are more. I didn't know un(a) guardia was supposed to be a sub-standard replacement of un(a) guarda. Besides un guardia civil there is also un guardia urbano and un guardia de seguridad. I'm sure all of these are used. Un guardia must be commonplace or even preferred in Spain as that is the only word I picked up, but like a sponge I picked up a lot of bad habits there. :) Perhaps guardia was influenced by policía. That makes sense, but when exactly did un policía come about, when it replaced un alguacil?

    Italian seems to be more liberal with the feminine gender applied to men. In Spanish for example one would never consider saying to a man: La llamo a Vd. para mantenerla informada just because Usted derives from Vuestra Merced and Merced is a feminine noun. This seems to be the rationale behind using Lei (formal you),La signora guardia, La signora giudice and several other forms or titles in standard Italian.

    This reminds me that there is apparently hesitation in French between un sage-femme/ une sage-femme homme for "midwife". It's awkward because the term literally means a "wise-woman".
     
    Last edited: Apr 13, 2014
  33. francisgranada Senior Member

    Slovakia
    Hungarian
    I think this is perfectly o.k. and not even "unnatural" because e.g. policía in the sense of a person is a secondary and different usage/meaning of policía (as organization, corps). Similar examples do exist also in Italian. (The only example that comes to my mind at the moment is capostanza, which can be both masculine and feminine, even if capo is of masc. gender).

    In case of víctima, persona, etc... the original/primary usage/meaning of the noun is fully maintained (regardless if it is applied to men or women). Thus in these cases the grammatical gender is "strongly bounded" to the proper noun and this tends to impede any possible changing of the grammatical geneder of the noun. Of course, everything is possible :) ...

    So, the problem is not the gender of the noun guardia. When we can say "Pedro es una buena persona" why couldn't we say "Pietro è una buona guardia" ? ... Both the sentences are grammatically correct and, I think, totally natural. The "problem" is the usage of the noun signora refering to a male. The "logic" of this kind of concordance, i.e. that the noun guardia (fem.) requires the usage of the noun signora (fem.), is understandable. However, I can't find any convincing reason/justification why it should be so, or in other words, why signora guardia would be "more grammatical" than signor guardia (in case of a male guardsman, of course).
     
    Last edited: Apr 13, 2014
  34. caelum

    caelum Senior Member

    Northwestern Ontario
    Canadian English
    We also have examples such as un modelo del mundo pero él es un modelo / ella es una modelo, but then veo una estrella en el cielo y él es una estrella del rock / ella es una estrella del rock.
     
  35. merquiades

    merquiades Senior Member

    France
    USA Northeast
    Yes, I see what you mean. :) Italian obviously has a different sensitivity about gender and adheres more strictly to the gender of the primary noun in a group, and coalesces around that. That's the only way to explain "la signora guardia". We could give quite a few reasons to justify "*il signore guardia". Questo signore è guardia.... drop the verb and signore would work as an attribute in opposition to guardia... Questo signore guardia. Yet, if that construction is unacceptable in Italian, we have no choice but to see signora as an adjective that modifies guardia and has to be feminine singular.

    Edit: I wonder what Italian does with the male of una levatrice?
     
    Last edited: Apr 13, 2014
  36. francisgranada Senior Member

    Slovakia
    Hungarian
    Yes, however I have some doubts regarding this different sensitivity, i.e. if it is really spontaneaous ... (my ad hoc "research" [post #31] seems to suggest the contrary).
     
  37. Gavril Senior Member

    English, USA
    But do you say, for example, "gospođa babica / primalja / zanatlija" regardless of whether the person in question is a man or woman?

    Also, do you happen to know the etymological reason why zanatlija is feminine? It looks like an agent noun derived from a verb, but I can't tell what verb it's based on.

    (Thanks)
     
  38. merquiades

    merquiades Senior Member

    France
    USA Northeast
    In French, at least, feminizing a profession by adding a Madame seems to be common and preferred by l'Académie Française (there was a thread about that somewhere): Madame le juge, Madame le préfet, Madame le président, Madame le professeur. But Monsieur la sage-femme would seem bizarre. If memory serves me well they stated that the masculine has a common unaffected function and actually serves to make women equal, rather than inventing a special form for them. That's the same rationale that is used in the US to make everyone an actor now, no one an actress, same for flight attendant... etc. Using the masculine in lieu of feminine is thus rather common practice. That's how I would see La signora giudice and Madame le juge (not modifying the noun) rather than the Spanish Jueza.

    The example of guardia is different and is working in a different way. It's not il signore guardia or even la signore guardia or la guardia signore. Signore has to be seen as some type of adjective then, guardia forcing it to become feminine. It would be like your example: Pietro è una buona guardia, è una persona molto brava, è una povera vittima, è una signora guardia.
    I asked what was done with levatrice to compare.
     
  39. CapnPrep Senior Member

    France
    AmE
    Unfortunately, the estimates that Google gives, and any numbers over 1,000, are quite unreliable and unusable even for casual research. I clicked through to the last page of results and only got about 130 hits for la signora giudice and about 680 for il signor giudice (540) + il signore giudice (140). And of course there is no easy way to determine how many of the signor(e) examples actually refer to a female judge.
    In any case, there are definitely speakers who use this form, whether totally naturally or as a conscious choice. But someone who accepts la signora giudice will not necessarily accept il signor(e) guardia (or vice versa).
     
  40. thegreathoo Senior Member

    Srpski
    No. It would be Mr. midwife (gospodin babica, which sounds weird). Although, Mr. and Mrs. is generally used to formally address a person, and usually in conjunction with an official title or a last name, such as Mr. president. Use of Mr. with name of profession is not idiomatic in the sense that it sounds over the top or snide depending on situation.

    The word is coined from the word zanat (trade, eng.) and suffix -lija. Compare to bečlija (a man from Vienna, coined from Beč (Vienna) and suffix -lija). However, a woman from Vienna is bečlijka, or bečanka. Also, the true musculine form for a man from Vienna is bečanin.
     
    Last edited: Apr 14, 2014
  41. francisgranada Senior Member

    Slovakia
    Hungarian
    I agree, of course.
     
  42. Awwal12 Senior Member

    Moscow, the RF
    Russian
    In Russian the situation is partly similar, but is even more complicated.
    Many professions have only masculine words for them, or feminine variants do exist but are colloquial and disrespectful.
    Of course, since in Russian most words (including also past forms of verbs) have grammatical gender, there is always a problem of grammatical agreement between them.
    And when designating females, such words still demand masculine attributives, BUT in the same time feminine predicates (when the predicate can have a gender, of course).
    "Иванова - хороший врач." - Ivanova (f.) is a good (m.) doctor (m.).
    "Врач вошла в кабинет." - The doctor (m.) entered (f.) the room.
     
    Last edited: Apr 14, 2014
  43. Gavril Senior Member

    English, USA
    Just out of curiosity, if you formed a predicate with the verb "to be", such as "The doctor is sick right now", would the adjective adapt to the semantic gender of the doctor?
     
  44. francisgranada Senior Member

    Slovakia
    Hungarian
    For those who have followed the disussion about "la signora guardia" but do not understand Russian, in Italan it would be something like this (literally, for illustration):

    Ivanova (f.) è un buon medico (m.).
    * (Il) medico (m.) è entrata (f.) nell'ufficio (o studio, ecc...)

    (this is not a common Slavic feature though, but an interesting solution ...)
     
    Last edited: Apr 14, 2014
  45. Angelo di fuoco Senior Member

    Germany
    Russian & German (GER) bilingual
    When speaking about Ivanova, both "врач болен" & "врач больна" are possible options, in my opinion.
     
  46. Gavril Senior Member

    English, USA
    I'm confused: are you saying that Italian is actually like this (Il medico è entrata ...) or are you temporarily "modifying" Italian grammar to illustrate what Awwal12 was saying about Russian?
     
  47. francisgranada Senior Member

    Slovakia
    Hungarian
    No, no ... I am only illustrating (comparing) the Italian with Russian showing the two different "solutions".
    I agree (I've no doubts about Awwal12's explanation).

    P.S. I've put an asterisc before the second sentence ...
     
  48. francisgranada Senior Member

    Slovakia
    Hungarian
    In Slovak (a Western Slavic language) it works like this:

    "Иванова - хороший врач." - Ivanova (f.) is a good (m.) doctor (m.).
    Ivanová (f.) je dobrá lekárka (f.) - preferred
    Ivanová (f.) je dobrý lekár (m.) -
    possible

    "Врач вошла в кабинет." - The doctor (m.) entered (f.) the room.

    Lekárka (f.) vošla (f.) do ordinácie - correct
    * Lekár (m.) vošla (f.) do ordinácie - impossible

    (lekárka is the feminine version of lekár - physician, doctor)

    *********
    P.S. For curiosity (to show the "logic"), the Slovak usage of pani (signora, feminine) with doktor (dottore, masculine):

    Pani (f.) doktorka
    (f.) vošla (f.) do ordinácie - correct and common
    Pani (f.) doktor (m.) vošla (f.) do ordinácie - used, but less common and ("oficially") considered incorrect

    (doktorka is the feminine version of doktor, but as doktor is also an academic title, there is some dilemma around the spontaneous usage of the feminine version in some cases ...)
     
    Last edited: Apr 14, 2014
  49. punctuate Senior Member

    Russian
    The safest solution, and one that comes out spontaneously, is врач болеет (no gender): врач болеет, приходите через недельку. Actually, наша врач болеет is also possible, just like наш врач больна is, but they are more borderline. I explain this this way: that doctor that comes in the nominal predicate is a different doctor than Ivanova is; it is a generic doctor, one that does not have any sex. While when you apply a description to the subject, you maytreat the subject in any way: either as a reference to a person (a woman, Ivanova, the gender follows from that), or as a reference to a doctor (a person of profession, the grammatical gender is masculine).
     
  50. Awwal12 Senior Member

    Moscow, the RF
    Russian
    The trick is that in Russian the copula verb "to be" is virtually always omitted in present tense, and its present tense form has no personal, gender or number variations anyway - it's always есть /yest'/ (it probably would just disappear from the language, but it has other, not copula-related uses, as in constructions like 'I have smth', 'there is smb' etc.). The future forms (like in 'the doctor will be sick') are also out of the question here, since they can change in person and number but not in gender. And in the past tense the verb would take the semantic gender as described above - "врач была больна" (the doctor (m.) was (f.) sick (f.)); note that the adjective here is a part of the predicate and hence is also feminine.

    In present and future forms the adjective of the predicate would be also feminine, of course: врач больна (the doctor (m.) (is) sick (f.)), врач будет больна (the doctor (m.) will be sick (f.)).
     
    Last edited: Apr 15, 2014

Share This Page