The chapter my class is studying right now touches upon both the use of the past participle in dependent clauses and the past gerundive. The way my book shows it, its like they are exactly the same. So how do you know which one to use?? For example, my book has this: For the past participle, it says you can use it in this sentence Partiti in gran fretta, hanno dimenticato di avvertire gli altri = Having left in a great hurry, they forgot to warn the others For the past gerundive, it says you can use it in this sentence Essendo partiti in fretta, hanno dimenticato i pacchi = Having left in a hurry, they forget their packages I am confused because I don't know how you determine which one to use. On my final take home test, one of the sentences I have to translate is: Having had breakfast, she went out. Now, how do I know whether or not to use the past gerundive or the past participle? Or does it even matter?? The way I translated it, which I think is wrong is Avuta la colazione, e uscito (don't know how to make accent marks on the keyboard). Is this wrong, or right? I'm totally confused. Could I also translate it like this: Avendo avuto la colazione, e uscito?