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Persian: How to look up a verb with declension in dictionary

Discussion in 'Indo-Iranian Languages' started by Daffodil100, Jun 23, 2013.

  1. Daffodil100

    Daffodil100 Senior Member

    Chinese
    Hi,
    In case I am reading an article, I run into a verb with declension. I never know it. How do I look it up in the dictionary? The dictionary generally doesn’t indicate verbs with declension for tenses, does it?
    For example, I have learned how to make present continuous tense.
    من :‌ می + کن +م = می کنم
    تو : می +کن +ی = می کنی
    ....
    I am able to find out the stem of the verb. Will dictionary indicate کن is the stem of کردن ?


    Thank you!

    P.S. Please illustrate it with present continuous tense. This is the only tense I have learned so far.
     
  2. Faylasoof Senior Member

    Plato's Republic
    English (UK) & Urdu (Luckhnow), Hindi
    Many / most Persian-English dictionaries give the present stem of irregular verbs (i.r.) only! What you need is a good Persian grammar book. Lambton's grammar lists all the irregular verbs and I guess others too. There are many online resources as well, like this, that also deal with this topic.

    A good lexicon, for example would tell you that the present stem of رفتن is as follows: رفتن (i.r. رو *rav) but will not say anything about the present stem of چكیدن , which would be formed regularly to give چك , therefore this doesn't need to be indicated.

    اشك از چشمائش می چكد
    Tears are dropping from his / her eyes (lit.)
    Tears are flowing from his / her eyes (idiomatic)

    من دارم به بازار می روم
    I am going to the market

    [* the rav pronunciation may not be given!]

    Also, please check our resources section. Many online resources listed there.
     
  3. Treaty Senior Member

    Australia
    Persian
    You will be lucky to see present form in the dictionary. Anyway, a useful list is here (in Latin alphabet).
     
  4. Faylasoof Senior Member

    Plato's Republic
    English (UK) & Urdu (Luckhnow), Hindi
    I agree! However, the present stem for irregular verbs can be / is indicated in a number of Persian-English lexicons, as I indicated earlier, but not for regular verbs because that would be redundant:

    (Emphasis added).

    Best for Daffodil to learn the present stems of irregular verbs. The list is not that long anyway.
     
  5. Daffodil100

    Daffodil100 Senior Member

    Chinese
    Thank you both very much for your replies.

    I am confused by construction of a regular verb in Persian. It seems that Persian verbs are based of nouns. Right?

    For example, خواهش می کنم

    At its face value, it means I am requesting.

    If I don't know this phrase, how should I look it up in a dictionary? The dictionary will not tell me what خواهش می کنم means. Should I make the present countinous tense to its verb, and then to its noun? With noun, I can find it in the dictionary?

    (As in English I read a sentence- I am requesting, and I don't know what "requesting" means. What I should do is to remove-ing from "requesting", so the dictionary will tell me what "request" means)
     
    Last edited: Jun 23, 2013

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