Hello, The Chinese authories require to use Pinyin ( phonetic symbols with Latin letters for Chinese language) to translate Chinese names and places into English. i.e. Shanghai is the Pinyin in Chinese language. I am not sure there's such an official rule required by Chinese Education Department for tranlating Chinese names or places of China into Persian. I assume probably no, because a few people write and read Persian in China as Persian is not taught as widely as English . In my textbook, Shanghai is translated into شانگهای . Is there any rule to follow in Persian to translate foreign names into Persian? Shanghai, first a is a short vowel in English, but why is it a long vowel in Persian? Thank you!