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prononciation du H aspiré ou muet

Discussion in 'French-English Vocabulary / Vocabulaire Français-Anglais' started by roger077, Dec 4, 2004.

  1. roger077 Junior Member

    New Jersey, USA
    USA English
    How does one determine whether the "H" is aspiré?

    Moderator note: multiple threads merged to create this one
     
    Last edited: Nov 28, 2011
  2. OlivierG

    OlivierG Senior Member

    Toulouse, France
    France / Français
    There is no way. Just a list of words.
    Here it is, I hope it's complete.
    The alphabetical order is not right, because accented characters are put after all the other vowels. I hope it will be useful anyway.

    Words with an "H aspiré":

    ha
    hache
    hacher (+ conjugated forms)
    hachette
    hachis
    hachisch
    hachoir
    hachure
    hachurer (+ conjugated forms)
    haddock
    hagard
    haie
    haillon
    haine
    haineuse
    haineux
    halage
    hale
    haler (+ conjugated forms)
    haleter
    hall
    halle
    hallebarde
    hallebardier
    halo
    halte
    halètement
    hamac
    hameau
    hammam
    hampe
    hamster
    hanap
    hanche
    handicap
    handicapé
    handicaper (+ conjugated forms)
    hangar
    hanneton
    hanter (+ conjugated forms)
    hantise
    hanté
    happer
    haquené
    haquet
    haras
    harasser(+ conjugated forms)
    harceler(+ conjugated forms)
    harde
    hardi
    hardiesse
    hardiment
    harem
    hareng
    harengère
    hargne
    hargneux
    haricot
    haridelle
    harnachement
    harnacher(+ conjugated forms)
    harnais
    haro
    harpe
    harpie
    harpiste
    harpon
    harponnage
    harponner(+ conjugated forms)
    hasard
    hasarder(+ conjugated forms)
    hasardeux
    haschisch
    hase
    hauban
    hausse
    hausser
    haut
    hautain
    hautbois
    hautboïste
    hautement
    hauteur
    havage
    havane
    haver(+ conjugated forms)
    havre
    havresac
    haïr (+ conjugated forms)
    haïssable
    heaume
    hein
    hem
    hennins
    hennir
    hennissement
    henné
    hennêtes
    hep
    herniaire
    hernie
    herschage
    herscher(+ conjugated forms)
    herse
    heurt
    heurter(+ conjugated forms)
    heurtoir
    hi
    hibou
    hic
    hideur
    hideusement
    hideux
    hile
    hippie
    hisser(+ conjugated forms)
    hiérarchie
    hiérarchique
    hiérarchiser(+ conjugated forms)
    hiéroglyphe
    ho
    hobereau
    hocher(+ conjugated forms)
    hochet
    hockey
    hockeyeur
    hollandais
    hollande
    holà
    homard
    hongre
    hongrois
    honnir(+ conjugated forms)
    honnête
    honte
    honteusement
    honteux
    hop
    hoquet
    hoqueter(+ conjugated forms)
    horde
    horion
    hormis
    hors
    hotte
    hottentot
    houblon
    houblonnière
    houe
    houille
    houiller
    houle
    houlette
    houleux
    houppe
    houppelande
    houppes
    houppette
    hourdis
    hourra
    hourvari
    houspiller
    housse
    houx
    hublot
    huche
    huer(+ conjugated forms)
    huguenot
    huit
    huitaine
    huitième
    huitièmement
    hulotte
    hululement
    hululer
    hum
    humage
    humer(+ conjugated forms)
    hune
    hunier
    huppe
    huppé
    hure
    hurler(+ conjugated forms)
    hurrah
    hussard
    hutte
    huée
    hâbleur
    hâler(+ conjugated forms)
    hâter(+ conjugated forms)
    hâtif
    hâtivement
    hâve

    hélas
    héler
    héraut
    hérissement
    hérisser(+ conjugated forms)
    hérisson
    hérissé
    héron
    héros
    hère
    hêtre
     
  3. sarrah Senior Member

    Arabic
    Salut:
    just curious which of the following word has an "h aspire' "
    homme
    or:

    héro
    Can anyone svp provide more explanation about an "h aspire' "
    Cheers..
     
    Last edited: Nov 28, 2011
  4. Gil Senior Member

    Français, Canada
    Found there
    h :
    Consonne muette quand on ne l'entend pas dans la prononciation du mot : l'homme.
    Consonne aspirée lorsqu'elle fait prononcer la voyelle suivante avec une légère aspiration : la haine.

    Hope it helps.
     
  5. geve

    geve Senior Member

    France, Paris
    France, French
    So it would be "l'homme", but "le héro"...

    ...and then I thought : we say "le héro", but "l'héroïne" (and not "la héroïne") :confused:

    [Edit] Found on this website :
    "Si héros a l'h muet, son féminin héroïne ainsi que tous ses dérivés (héroïque, héroïquement, héroïsme...) ne l'ont pas."

    D'après ce site, les mots d'origine germanique ont un H aspiré, tandis que les mots d'origine grecque ou latine ont un H muet.
     
    Last edited: Feb 7, 2010
  6. Cath.S.

    Cath.S. Senior Member

    Bretagne, France
    français de France
    On dit l'héro lorsque c'est le diminutif argotique d'héroïne (la drogue)
    et le héros lorsque l'on parle d'un homme au comportement admirable.
     
  7. pktopp Junior Member

    NYC, NY USA
    English, USA
    Hi. This is my first post! I wanted to address the question about /h/ aspire'. First, there is much speculation about the origin of /h/ aspire'. No one is really sure why some h's are ellided and others are not. Sometimes they disappear. For example, it is correct to pronounce "des haricots" as /deariko'/ although today this utterance is frequently pronounced as /dezariko/ in France and Que'bec.

    As for Le He'ros (don't forget that final s) that is indeed an interesting point, as its feminine counterpart IS ellided (l'heroine). It was explained to me this way at university:
    "He'ros must be pronounced with h aspire. Otherwise, its plural form "les he'ros" would be identical in pronunciation to "les z'eros".
    I don't know if this is the real reason for the origin of this usage, but it is a handy memory tool.
    I also seem to remember that many h aspire's appear in some (but hardly all) nouns of Greek origin.

    Hope this helps,
    Paul

    Just found this quote in the DICTIONNAIRE DES DIFFICULTES DE LA LANGUE FRANCAISE (Larousse):

    "héros se prononce avec h aspiré (pour éviter la liaison les-z-[h]éros [zéros]). Dans tous les dérivés (héroïne, héroïque, héroisme etc.) l'h est muet."

    This book is a must have for any scholar of French. There is a large section dedicated to h aspiré . Just look under "H".

    I also learned something new just now by perusing this section:

    "--Hy-. L'h est muet dans tous les mots commençant par hy."

    Who knew?

    Paul
     
    Last edited: Feb 7, 2010
  8. CARNESECCHI Senior Member

    Auvergne
    French / France
    Check the origin, all the "hy..." come directly from greek or via latin!
     
  9. pktopp Junior Member

    NYC, NY USA
    English, USA
    Quite true! However, hiéroglyphe and hégémonie also come from Greek and they employ h muet, not h aspiré. What I find interesting about the hy- nouns is that they are always pronounced (or not pronounced, if you prefer) with h aspiré. And, my friend, "always" is a word one rarely sees in the Wonderful World of Phonology.:)

    Paul
     
  10. sunshine92 Junior Member

    English
    J'ai appris que pour lire la liasion il y a besoin que que le mot que suivi un mot que finis pour consonant, commence pour un h de origine latin. (et ici "un h" avec liaison ou non?) Mais comme puis-je savoir si est-il de origine latin ou non? Et je sais que la liaison est interdite quand le mot commence avec h aspiré, mais je pensait que toutes les h sont mute en français. Pouvez-vous me expliqué, s'il vous plaît? Merci beaucoup d'avance!
     
  11. jann

    jann co-mod'

    English - USA
    Correct, liaison is forbidden when the following word begins with an aspirate H. The aspirate H itself is just as silent as the normal "unaspirated" H. The only thing that changes is whether or not you get to make élision & liaison.

    H non-aspiré
    le + honneur --> l'honneur (pronounced [lɔnœ], with élision in the singular)
    les + honneurs --> les honneurs (pronounced [lεzɔnœ] or [le-] because you make the liaison in the plural)
    There are many, many words like this: l'hôpital, l'homme, l'hiver, l'histoire, etc.

    H aspiré
    la + haine --> la haine (pronounced [laεn], no élision in the singular)
    les + haines --> les haines (pronounced [lεεn] or [leεn], no liaison in the plural)
    There are only a few dozen words like this : le haricot, le hasard, la honte, etc.


    When you learn a new word that starts with an H, how do you know which kind of H it is? If you can look at the word and recognize that it's based on a Latin root, this might be a good sign that the H will be non-aspirate. But what if you don't know enough about Latin to be able to guess the root? In this case, you can look in a dictionary. If the word starts with an aspirate H, the pronunciation symbol for the word will start with an apostrophe, or you will see something like init. asp. written after the pronunciation.

    In general, I think it's safe to say that the H at the beginning of a French word is usually not aspirate. Other than words borrowed from English (le hockey, le hold-up), there are really only a few dozen French words that start with aspirate H. You'll find a pretty good list in a white box at the bottom of this page, or see OlivierG's post above.

    Does that help? :)
     
    Last edited: Feb 10, 2014
  12. chamyto

    chamyto Senior Member

    Burgos, Spain
    Spanish
    Hello, I wonder if this "h" (as in French héros) would have the similar sound to /h/ as in English "his" /hiz/ , for instance. I could not distinguish one or another in a conversation.

    Thank you in advance.
     
    Last edited: Mar 28, 2012
  13. jann

    jann co-mod'

    English - USA
    No, the French aspirate "H" of héros does not resemble the English H of "his". French does not have an H sound like English "his."

    As I said in my post above, the aspirate H itself is just as silent as the normal "unaspirated" H. So the reason you cannot hear a difference between the two in conversation is because there isn't one! :) The only thing that changes is whether or not you get to make élision & liaison... and this, you will certainly hear.
     

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