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Reasons for multiple meanings of Spanish 'quedar'

Discussion in 'Etymology, History of languages and Linguistics (EHL)' started by Beachxhair, Aug 30, 2013.

  1. Beachxhair

    Beachxhair Senior Member

    Manchester UK
    English-England
    The Spanish verb quedar has a multitude of different meanings and uses....It can be synonymous with permanecer, mostrarse, resultar, sentar, citarse, acabar, acordar.... How did the verb develop so many different meanings? What did its Latin ancestor originally mean?

    Thank you :)
     
  2. Quiviscumque

    Quiviscumque Moderator

    Ciudad del paraíso
    Spanish-Spain
    Dear Beachxhair, could you explain the deployement of meanings for your get or set? Those things happen...

    What is really worth of mention is the fact that from the same quĭētus (Lat.) we have a pair of almost antonyms: quedar and quitar.
     
  3. Beachxhair

    Beachxhair Senior Member

    Manchester UK
    English-England
    Ah, you mean the English verbs get and set? Yes, English get is very similar to quedar in its multifarious meanings. I think I'll start a new thread on the origins of to get's various meanings, but for now, on this thread, I'm interested in quedar :)
     
  4. Quiviscumque

    Quiviscumque Moderator

    Ciudad del paraíso
    Spanish-Spain
    quietus > quietare > quedar

    According to Corominas:
    Quedar, h. 1140, lat. QUIETARE "aquietar, hacer callar" (de donde quedarse "estarse quieto" y luego quedar "permanecer".

    The rest of the meanings arise more or less directy from "permanecer".
     
  5. merquiades

    merquiades Senior Member

    France
    USA Northeast
    Fascinating that quedar and quitar have an identical origin. I never associated them for being so different in meaning.
     
  6. Beachxhair

    Beachxhair Senior Member

    Manchester UK
    English-England
    What's interesting is how quedar came to have a meaning of 'becoming', like in the expressions quedar ciego, quedar atrapado, me quedó sorprendido....Quedar had come to mean permanecer, to remain, to stay, ie. a static, stative meaning, whereas a verb of becoming describes a change in state, something which could be sudden. Although one could argue that some changes are gradual, as going blind often is (quedar ciego), there is still a change taking place, a transition, which seems contrary to the static meaning of to remain or to stay (quedar). Being caught (quedar atrapado) and becoming surprised (quedar sorprendido) are often viewed as semelfactive actions, hence the preterite rather than imperfect tense in me quedó sorprendido.

    Does anyone know how quedar ended up acquiring a sense of to become?

    Thanks :)
     
  7. merquiades

    merquiades Senior Member

    France
    USA Northeast
    With "quedar(se)" the focus is not on the transition or the process. What is important is what "remains" after it is over. The result of the process of going blind is that afterwards you are blind. You're in the state of blindness. Same with trapping and surprising. After the trap and the surprise you are left in the trap and coping with the after effects of the surprise. It's kind of like "estar" but the idea of lingering, staying, remaining is stronger. If you want to focus on the "becoming" you have to use another verb like "volverse" or "ponerse"
     
  8. Beachxhair

    Beachxhair Senior Member

    Manchester UK
    English-England
    :tick: Thanks, it makes sense now. So quedar is kind of like resultar, then?
     
  9. Beachxhair

    Beachxhair Senior Member

    Manchester UK
    English-England
    This is interesting. Are there any articles written about this :confused: I can see how the meaning of to remain/stay could develop from the meaning of to rest in quietare, (through perceived similarity of concepts, metaphor; a period of rest is a period where things don't change), but as for quitar, I'm a little more baffled. Having said that, words can evolve to have an opposite meaning to their original one; the English awful originally meant 'inspiring wonder (or fear)' ('awe' in fact still means 'wonder'), but now awful means terrible. It seems to be a similar case with quitar; to leave is the opposite of to stay. I'm not sure what triggers this kind of semantic change, or even its official name. It'd be helpful if someone on here could shed some light on this...
     
    Last edited: Sep 29, 2013
  10. Beachxhair

    Beachxhair Senior Member

    Manchester UK
    English-England
    Could quitar derive from the noun quietus, which meant stillness, removal from activity, or death, rather than the participle form quĭētus? The English quit and French quitter are derived from quietus, and both have fairly close meanings to quit; English, to quit, renounce something; if you 'quit' something, you 'leave it' basically, and French quitter can mean to give something up, to leave, to take something (eg clothes) off....
     
  11. Quiviscumque

    Quiviscumque Moderator

    Ciudad del paraíso
    Spanish-Spain
    As you can suppose (that -t- is a good hint) "quitar" is a learned loan, it this case from late legal Latin "qui(e)t(t)are", "to waive". I think Corominas says that the shifting was something like "to waive" > "to free a person from captivity" > "to abduct a person" > "to take away anything".

    The true Castilian word from "quietus" is "quedo".
     
  12. Beachxhair

    Beachxhair Senior Member

    Manchester UK
    English-England
    Ah that makes sense.
     

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