Hello All, I have been eagerly learning Portuguese for the past few months (both the European and Brazilian varieties), and have some confusion with regards to the pronunciation of the letter 'S' when it occurs at the end of a Word. From several sources that I have checked on Internet, I have found that the general rule is as follows: s sounds like "s" in sing - unless it's between two vowels where it sounds like "z" in zebra - unless it comes before a voiced consonant, where it sounds like the "s" in pleasure - unless it comes before a voiceless consonant, or at the end of a word, where it sounds like the "sh" in she The above rule is taken specifically from the internet site 'Portuguese Online: Pronouncing European Portuguese'. However, there are many other sites on Internet stating the same rules. The Portuguese course guide I am using «Take Off In Portuguese» (Oxford), also indicates the same rules. The confusion I am having, is that I seem to have run into a number of exceptions for the above rules (via audio recordings I have of native Portuguese speakers, within the Oxford course mentioned above as well as within the Assimil Portuguese course). Are there really exceptions to the above rules, or is it just that I don't understand the rules correctly? Here are a few examples I have come across where there seems to be an exception to the rule (unless I have misunderstood the rule) : 1. In the word «bancos», the final 'S' sounds to me like an 's' and not like a 'sh' ( IPA: Sounds like /s/, and not like /ʃ/ ) This seems to contradict the rule above, since the final 's' is at the end of a word. 2. In the phrase «Duas garrafas de cerveja», the final 's' in the word 'garrafas' sounds to me like a 'sh' and not like an 's' ( ( IPA: Sounds like /ʃ/, and not like /s/ ) This seems to contradict the rule above, since the final 's' in 'garrafas' comes before a 'd', which is a voiced consonant Could someone please help me clarify, are the above really exceptions? If so, is there a pattern to these exceptions or do they just have to be learned one by one?