Hi all, As I hadn't found anything touching on this specific topic, I'm starting a new thread. Apologies in advance if this has been brought up elsewhere in the forum. I'm assigning my EFL students a task in which they rewrite a short paragraph using this conditional. Example: The security guard called the police. X had to stand trial. becomes If the security guard hadn't called the police, X wouldn't have had to stand trial. The next sentence in the paragraph would then be: If X hadn't stood trial (Y wouldn't have happened). However, I anticipate a student asking me why this sentence wouldn't be written as: If X hadn't had to stand trial... and un/fortunately, I have to provide a reason other than "that's just the way it is!" My first instinct was to differentiate between [hadn't had + noun] and [+ infinitive], but I've found examples of the latter, e.g. She would've left home sooner if she hadn't had to take care of her parents. Both "X" hadn't stood and hadn't had to stand trial point to the fact that s/he in did go through the process. For the life of me, though, I still don't know how to explain clearly, concisely why the former was my automatic response, besides that "to have to do sthg" is a way of expressing obligation (and that the answer is in the back of the textbook)! That said, all suggestions would be helpful and duly appreciated!