Hi, I'm new to the forum and I wanted to ask a question on Hindi-Urdu vowels. Without diacritical marks, the Urdu script doesn't indicate the vowel sounds as precisely as the Devanagri script so that the pronunciation of certain words can only be determined from the context. Do you believe the pronunciation of certain vowels differs between Hindi and Urdu speakers? If it does, is it more geographic, historical or could the increased literacy in two different scripts have an influence on pronunciation. When I think about the above words, मैं sounds like "men" with the n nasalized. In Urdu I would pronounce it the same but I would also pronounce it as a diphthong like "mãy" "مَیں" which I hear more often among Hyderabadis.