Urdu, Hindi: The use of "sab" before a singular noun

Discussion in 'Indo-Iranian Languages' started by Qureshpor, Jul 26, 2013.

  1. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    I was listening to one of my favorite Muhammad Rafi songs "din Dhal jaa'e, haa'e raat nah jaa'e" written by Shailendra from the film Guide (1965) and the following couplet made me think about the use of the word "sab".

    pyaar meN jin ke sab jag chhoRaa aur hu'e bad-naam
    un ke hii haathoN Haal hu'aa yih baiThe haiN dil ko thaam

    I always thought "sab" was used before a plural noun, e.g sab log, sab laRkiyaaN. I would have expected "saaraa" here. Your views please.
     
  2. marrish

    marrish Senior Member

    اُردو Urdu
    Thanks for this topic. You will surely be familiar with the banner song of Malikah-e-tarannum - chaaNdnii raateN where the same expression is used - sab jag soye ham jaageN. I can't remember where but I heard this expression somewhere else as well.

    I know you can say charaaGh tale aNdheraa but the most obvious and simple example of sab + singular noun is sab kuchh!
     
  3. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    ^ Once again "sab jag"! That's interesting.

    "sab-kuchh" is a strange one. Is "kuchh" a singular noun? I think, here it means "something". Does n't "sab" mean "har" here?
     
  4. Faylasoof Senior Member

    Plato's Republic
    English (UK) & Urdu (Luckhnow), Hindi
    QP SaaHib, sab can and is used for singular nouns where the meaning of puraa / purii or saaraa / saarii (= all, sum [total], entire, etc.) is meant, e.g.

    sab jag or sab jahan meN = saarii / puurii dunyaa meN <-- use of saarii / saaraa, depending on gender- as you mentioned.

    sab raqam = puurii / saarii raqam
     
  5. Alfaaz Senior Member

    English
    Another possible example (however, it isn't clear who the lyricist is):
    ae sab jag ke rakhvaale , meraa saajan tere Hawaale mere pyaar ki pat bhi tu hai , aur patwaar bhi tu hai mujhko bharosaa hai jis par, woh khewan*-haar bhi tu hai tere siwaa manjdhaar se meri nayyaa kaun nikaale ae sab jag ke rakhvaale Film: Haidar Ali (1978) Shaa'ir: Riaz Shahid, Raja Ghazanfar Ali, Basheer Niyaaz or someone else....!?
    اے سب جگ کے رکھوالے ، میرا ساجن تیرے حوالے میرے پیار کی پت بھی تو ہے ، اور پتوار بھی تو ہے مجھکو بھروسا ہے جس پر ، وہ کھیون* ہار بھی تو ہے تیرے سوا منجدھار سے میری نیا کون نکالے اے سب جگ کے رکھوالے فلم: حیدر علی (١٩٧٨) شاعر: ریاض شاہد ، راجہ غضنفر علی ، بشیر نیاز یا کوئی اور....!؟

    * This could be wrong/some other word!
     
  6. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    ^ Thank you Alfaaz SaaHib. khevan-haar/khevaiyyaa is naa('o)-xudaa.
     
  7. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Thank you Faylasoof SaaHib for the examples. It just seems a bit odd.
     
  8. Faylasoof Senior Member

    Plato's Republic
    English (UK) & Urdu (Luckhnow), Hindi
    Hmm... well not to our ears! We use it a lot!
     
  9. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Would "sab" in the following words equate to all or every?

    sab kuchh, sab ko'ii and sab kahiiN? I know that sab ko'ii and sab kahiiN are perhaps not so frequent now and are usually replaced by har ko'ii and har kahiiN.
     
  10. marrish

    marrish Senior Member

    اُردو Urdu
    I've caught myself today on saying ''sab koshish ke baa-wujuud'' and I think it fits onto ''sab jag''.

    Responding to the post above: just guessing --- does sab equate to every or to all? In English they are translated in this way:

    1. sab kuchh: everything
    2. sab ko'ii: everybody
    3. sab kahiiN: everywhere

    but sab on its own does not mean 'every' as 'har' does! A literal translation would amount to something like:

    1. all things
    2. all people
    3. overall

    Then, if we look at the English words which consist of every- but don't really mean 'every', this confusion might arise and perhaps har ko'ii would correspond to "every person" not "everyone".
     

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