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Urdu: Ways of forming verbal nouns

Discussion in 'Indo-Iranian Languages' started by teaboy, Feb 2, 2012.

  1. teaboy Senior Member

    USA
    English
    Can someone list with examples some common ways to form verbal nouns, that is, the noun of the action of a verb. We do this in English with -ing (walking, writing) and -ation (syncopation) and -y (buggery).

    Recently we discussed dihii (nishaandihii) and there is aao (bachhaao, etc). Also -ii. Also -iat (banaaiat). Can you give some other examples of these and other endings used for the formation of the noun of an action?
     
  2. marrish Senior Member

    اُردو Urdu
    This is a question which is not answered easily. I think you can find them in a grammar book.
    You gave the most productive methods yourself, though.
     
  3. marrish Senior Member

    اُردو Urdu
    The main option is to make a verbal noun the same way as it is made in English: by using the infinitive of a verb. The difference with English is that such a verbal noun in Urdu has to be inflected in case a post-position follows it:

    verb banaanaa (to make) -> noun banaanaa (making) e.g.:

    baat banaanaa aasaan hai lekin kaam karnaa mushkil hai.
    بات بنانا آسان ہے لیکن کام کرنا مشکل ہے

    This method can be safely applied on any verb. Since you mention the 'nishaan-dihii' thread, you will no doubt remember that -dihii part corresponds to denaa دینا. denaa here is a verbal noun.
     
  4. teaboy Senior Member

    USA
    English
    You're right - I forgot to mention the infinitive.
     
  5. Qureshpor Senior Member

    Punjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو

    Let me make a start teaboy jii and hopefully others will fill the gaps.

    Firstly purely Urdu verbs.

    1) With some, just take the -naa off. e.g maarnaa >>> maar,

    2) Elongate the medial vowel of the root, e.g. chalnaa >>> chal >>> chaal; milnaa >>> mil >>> mel, baRhnaa >>> baaRh (flood)

    3) Add -aan to the root, e.g. uThaa >>> uTh >>> uThaaN

    4) Add-aa'ii to root, e.g. laRnaa >>> laRaa'ii; paRhnaa >>> paRhaa'ii

    5) Add -aa'o the root, e.g. chaRhnaa >>> chaRhaa'o

    6) Add-t, e.g chhuunaa >>> chhuut

    7) chhuuTnaa >>> chuTTii

    8) chhuuTnaa >>> chhuTkaaraa

    9) Add -aa/vaa to root, jhagaRnaa >> jhagRaa, bulaanaa >>> bulaavaa

    10) Add -aak, tairnaa >>> tairaak (swimmer)

    11) ghabraanaa >>> ghabraahaT

    12) khuRaknaa >>> khuRkii (rebuke)

    13) bharnaa >>> bhartii (cf. gintii)

    14) puujnaa >>> pujaarii

    15) oRhnaa >>> oRhnii (c.f dhoNknii, katarnii,

    16) dhonaa >>> dhobii

    17) barasnaa >>> barsaat

    18) piinaa >>>pyaas

    19) baknaa >>> bakvaas

    .....

    Some verbs form nouns in more than one way.

    karnaa >>> kartab, kartuut, karnii

    gaanaa >>> gaayak, gavaiyaa

    bachnaa >>> bachat, bachaa'o

    lagnaa >>> lagaa'ii (bujhaa'ii), lagaa'o< laag, lagan, lagii (dil-lagii), laaguu, lagaavaT, lagaan (tax)

    milnaa >>> mel, melaa, milan, milaap

    chalnaa >>chaal, chalan, chaaluu, chaalaan (?)

    basnaa >>> bastii, baseraa

    denaa >> den, devaa (c.f lenaa > len, levaa)

    bigaaRnaa >>> bigaaRuu

    retnaa (to file) >>> retu'aa (filer)

    biknaa >>> bikaa'uu, bikrii,

    belnaa >>> belan, belnii

    marnaa >>> maran (c.f jiivan, thakan, ghuTan), maryal

    kahnaa >>> kahaanii, kahaavat

    honaa >>> hot (power), honii (inevitable), honhaar (?)
     
    Last edited: Feb 2, 2012
  6. teaboy Senior Member

    USA
    English
    Wow, QP, you're amazing! Much to study!

    But are not some of your examples making not verbal nouns (the name of the action), but rather are making the name of the actor? For example, a makkhi maar is the person maaring the makkhi, whereas makhi maarna is the action.

    And is milan = the meeting, but milna = the act of meeting? etc.
     
  7. UrduMedium Senior Member

    United States
    Urdu (Karachi)
    Very interesting topic. Excellent list by QP saahab above.

    I'd love to see this thread grow.

    Some additions from my side:

    khelnaa >> khilaaRii, khilanDraa, khilonaa
    belnaa >> bilonii

    Additional examples noun >> noun:
    On the pattern of pujaarii
    bhiik >> bhikaarii
    juaa >> juaarii

    adh/aadhaa >> adhuuraa
    bahut >> buhtaat
     

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