"when": kapag, noon, nang

Discussion in 'Tagalog and Filipino Languages' started by MarFish, May 26, 2013.

  1. MarFish Senior Member

    California
    English - American
    The more I think about these three, the more I get confused about when to use which.

    kapag: I feel like this means "when" as in "whenever" or "while".
    noon: I know this has to do with the past such as "ago" or "at that time".
    nang: This is the one I'm not really sure about. I feel like it has overlap with noon.

    Here are some example sentences I just made up:

    Masaya ako kapag nakikita kita --> I am happy whenever I see you (?)
    Masaya ako noon kapag nakikita kita --> I used to be happy whenever I saw you (?)
    Masaya ako nang nakita kita --> I was happy when I saw you (?) [the act of seeing you made me happy, I became happy when I saw you]
    Masaya ako noong nakita kita --> I was happy at the time I saw you (?) [I was already happy when I saw you?]

    As a side note, I was talking to my mom a few months ago I think I said Tatawagan kita nang matatanggap ko ang package mo. She corrected me with kung: Tatawagan kita kung matatanggap ko ang package mo. I might not remember that sentence correctly, but the question I'm trying to bring up is the use of kung for "when".

    Does this mean kung would be used in sentences like: Turn off the faucet when you brush your teeth. Wash your hands when you eat.
     
    Last edited: May 26, 2013
  2. DotterKat Moderator

    California, USA
    English (American)
    You are asking about conditional sentences using subordinating conjunctions.

    (1) Masaya ako kapag nakikita kita.

    As used in this sentence, kapag best translates as the subordinating conjunction whenever. You can also use tuwing. Kapag can translate to when, as you will see later.

    Masaya ako kapag / tuwing nakikita kita = I am happy whenever I see you.

    The apodosis (Masaya ako/I am happy) is the result of the protasis (...whenever I see you). The conditional relationship between the two clauses is best pointed out by kapag/whenever, implying that you are happy as a consequence of seeing this other person. Here, kapag does not translate to when, which implies a specific point in time and does not signal as strong a conditional link between the two clauses as whenever:

    I am happy when I see you can imply that you just happen to be happy coincidental, and not necessarily consequent to, seeing this other person. Perhaps you normally come across this person at the beginning of the work day when you are not yet tired and grumpy or when you walk your dog in the park, an occasion when are normally cheerful anyway.

    Kapag does not translate to while. While is habang, which denotes a duration of time.

    (2) Masaya ako noon kapag / tuwing nakikita kita.

    Noon best translates as the adverb then. This is again a conditional sentence with two clauses. The apodosis (Masaya ako noon / I was happy then) is a consequence of the condition (...kapag / tuwing nakikita kita / whenever I would see you).

    (3) Masaya ako nang nakita kita.

    Nang best translates as when. As I explained in (1), this construction does not demonstrate a firm conditional relationship between the two clauses. It can simply imply that you happened to be in a cheerful mood coincidental to seeing this other person. However, you can alter the construction to signal a conditional relationship between the two clauses:

    [Naging masaya ako (verbal passive construction) OR Sumaya ako (actor focus)] nang nakita kita. I became happy when I saw you. Here, the apodosis (Naging masaya ako / Sumaya ako / I became happy) is clearly a consequence of of the condition in the protasis (... when I saw you).

    (4) Masaya ako noong nakita kita.

    Here, noon/noong pertains to a specific time in the past. Again, the construction does not give the strongest conditional relationship between the two clauses. It can imply that you were already in a cheerful mood at the time when you encountered this other person. The same alteration as in (3) can be applied to strengthen the conditional relationship between the two clauses:

    Naging masaya ako / Sumaya ako noong nakita kita. I became happy then when I saw you OR I then became happy when I saw you OR I became happy at the time when I saw you. Here, it is quite evident that the two clauses are conditionally intertwined.

    Your final text, as corrected by your mom, is a straightforward predictive conditional sentence:

    Tatawagan kita kita kung matatanggap ko ang package mo. I will call you if I receive your package. This implies less certainty that the condition will be fulfilled (that you will receive the package) and consequently, that the action in the apodosis will take place (that you will call your mom). This would be analogous to a type 2 conditional sentence in English.

    However, the conditional sentence that you seem to want to express is:

    Tatawagan kita kapag natanggap ko na ang package mo. I will call you when I receive your package OR I will call you once I have received your package. This implies more certainty that both actions will actually take place (analogous to a type 1 conditional sentence in English).

    >>>>>>>>

    "Does this mean kung would be used in sentences like: Turn off the faucet when you brush your teeth. Wash your hands when you eat."

    No, what you mean to say is Turn off the faucet while brushing your teeth = Isarado / Isara / Patayin mo ang gripo habang nagsisipilyo ka.

    Wash your hands when you eat does not translate directly. It would be best expressed as Maghugas ka ng kamay bago kumain (Wash your hands before eating).

    N.B. It may be beneficial to review the nuances between whenever (reiterative occurrence) and when (specific point in time) as this would help in choosing the correct Tagalog conjunction.
     
    Last edited: May 27, 2013
  3. MarFish Senior Member

    California
    English - American
    Thank you as always DotterKat! :)
     

Share This Page