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Where do we used Ibid and op. cit.: in research writting...

Discussion in 'English Only' started by J ACHUM NGULLIE, May 11, 2012.

  1. J ACHUM NGULLIE New Member

    Hyderabad
    English
    Where do we used Ibid and op. cit.: in research writting...Can anyone explain it with Example...Ibid and Op. ct., fn 37, p.29
     
  2. Keith Bradford

    Keith Bradford Senior Member

    Brittany, NW France
    English (Midlands UK)
    These are both derived from Latin. I believe that the distinction is:

    Ibid (= "in the same place") is used when you have two consecutive footnotes referring to the same work.
    Op. cit. (= "in the work quoted") is used when the two footnotes are separated by references to different works.
     
  3. Egmont Senior Member

    Massachusetts, U.S.
    English - U.S.
    As Keith Bradford pointed out, Op. Cit. is used when a different reference comes between two citations of the same work. When you use it, therefore, you have to say which author's work you're referring to. So, if you have five references:

    1. Shakespeare, Hamlet, p. 1
    2. Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress, p. 2
    3. Dante, Inferno, p. 3
    4. Shakespeare, Hamlet, p. 4
    5. Shakespeare, Hamlet, p. 5

    then you would use Op. Cit. for #4 and Ibid. for #5. However - and this is why I bothered posting - they are used differently. With #5, there is no possible confusion; Ibid. can only mean Hamlet. However, in #4, Op. Cit. by itself could mean either Hamlet or Pilgrim's Progress. Therefore, we must write "Shakespeare, Op. Cit." to avoid confusion. If we had previously cited Shakespeare's Julius Caesar as well, we'd have to give the title in full; we can't use Op Cit. when we have two or more previous citations by the same author. So, the whole list would become:

    1. Shakespeare, Hamlet, p. 1
    2. Bunyan, Pilgrim's Progress, p. 2
    3. Dante, Inferno, p. 3
    4. Shakespeare, Op. Cit., p. 4
    5. Ibid., p. 5

    Also, there are those who italicize both "Op. Cit." and "Ibid." as foreign words. That, and the use of initial capital letters, are matters of style. If you are writing for a journal or a publisher, or are writing a dissertation that should conform to university standards, you should find out what style that organization uses.
     

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