1. Y

    Nasmiya and Amniya police

    How to write "Nasmiya" and "Amniya" in Persian/Arabic letters? Text: "There are two kinds of police: the Nasmiya, which controls the towns; and the Amniya, which controls the roads and such of the hinterland as admits the law." Note: They are in Persia. Source: The Road to Oxiana by Robert Byron
  2. Y


    How to write the name of this kind of tree in Persian/Arabic letters? Text: "The inner court is planted with the same trees; horhju they are called." Source: The Road to Oxiana by Robert Byron
  3. Y

    Sarakh bisyar harab!

    This is a sentence by an Afridi man in English letters, how can I write it in Arabic\Persian\Pashto letters? and what does it mean? Text: "Sarakh bisyar harab! What an absolutely rotten road!' he shouted, grinning at its shiny complexion." Source: The Road to Oxiana by Robert Byron
  4. Y

    the village of Rozah

    Is "Rozah" here written روضه in Persian? Text: "The famous 'Towers of Victory' stand 700 yards apart on the way to the village of Rozah: a pair of octagonal star-shaped stumps, each seventy feet high and now roofed with a tin hat to prevent further decay." Source: The Road to Oxiana by Robert...
  5. Y

    the Desert of Top

    Is there a desert in Afghanistan called "the Desert of Top"? Text: "The journey here occupied 4½ hours, along a good hard road through the Desert of Top, which was carpeted with irises." Source: The Road to Oxiana by Robert Byron
  6. Y

    Pata Kissar

    What is Pata Kissar and how to write it in Persian/Arabic letters? Text: "We had hoped originally to make a journey by horse along the River from Pata Kissar to Hazrat Imam." Source: The Road to Oxiana by Robert Byron
  7. Y

    Persian: Khoja Duka

    How to write Khoja Duka in Persian/Arabic letters? Text: "A green patch of pasture at Khoja Duka tempted us to stop again, to watch a drove of brood mares and their foals, among which cavorted a raw-boned old stallion of sixteen hands, which is big for these parts." Source: The Road to Oxiana...
  8. Y

    Persian: the Jihun

    What is "the Jihun"? Text: "'Yes,' he said, 'the ground is all cooked between here and Mazar, but it is green again near the Jihun,' employing this word for the Oxus, and not understanding our reference to it as the Amu Darya." Source: The Road to Oxiana by Robert Byron
  9. Y


    How can I write "Robat" in Persian, Pashto or Arabic letters? "Robat is the Afghan term for caravanserai, and is also used as a measure of distance, since the main highways have these establishments every four farsakhs or sixteen miles." Source: The Road to Oxiana by Robert Byron
  10. B

    Pashtu: Da lala pashan zargy ghawaram daghdar

    Salaam Friends, Could someone give a word by word breakdown of this line from the poem "Entreaty" by Pashtu poet Ghani Khan? Da lala pashan zargy ghawaram daghdar. Translated as: I seek a heart stained like a poppy flower. Shukria. P.S. In the past, I was told that requests for poetry...
  11. B

    Dari/Pashto: Kidnapper

    Salaam, Hoping I don't need to use this, but could someone give me the Dari and Pashtu words for "kidnapper?" (Please, transliterated from the original Arabic script into Roman/English script?). Kheylee mamnoonam. Ben
  12. D

    Pashto - "TA" as part of proper name?

    Greetings: I recently came across a reference to a merchant navy sailor named ROSHANKHAN TA MAHOMED. The reference is from about 100 years ago. I have a couple of questions please: a) am I correct in assuming "Roshankhan" could just as easily have been transliterated as "Rohsan Khan" (ie...
  13. B

    Etymology: Pashto: (mína) مينه

    Does anyone know the etymology of this Pashto word meaning "love"? It is also the verb in "to love" = مينه كول Thanks in advance.
  14. B

    Pashto: Khar cha har chaire hum lar she, bia hum hagha khar we.

    I found the following on a Facebook site of Afghan Proverbs and Sayings. Khar cha har chaire hum lar she, bia hum hagha khar we. No matter where a donkey goes, it will always be a donkey. Am I correct in assuming that this is Pashtu? And is the translation accurate? Thanks for your...
  15. C

    Pashto: Werewolf

    I have read about stories of werewolves in the Hindu Kush, so I know there has to be a word for them, but I cannot find any online translator that has the word in its database. Can anyone help me? Thanks
  16. F

    Pashto, Punjabi, Urdu: ډېره ਡੇਰਾ ڈيره

    This question is regarding the degree of mutual intelligibility (or lack thereof) of the Pashto word ډېره (pronounced ɖe̞·ra) with Punjabi. I would use it interchangeably with the word ਬਹੁਤ بہُت which is an adjective meaning much, many, etc.. Example: A Punjabi speaker gives you some food...
  17. F

    Hindi, Pashto, Punjabi, Urdu: مننه

    In your opinion, will مننه (if used for thank you) be understood by Punjabi speakers? I would use it for thank you, like Punjabi ਧੰਨਵਾਦ or Hindi धन्यवाद. This question is intended for Punjabi speakers, as I am curious to know if مننه would be understood by some of them.Note: مننه is understood...
  18. T

    From what language did "qomandan" enter Pashto?

    Hi, The pronunciation of Pashto (and Dari) qomāndān قوماندان is akin to French "commandant" rather than its English counterpart. However, historically Afghanistan was influenced by English (contrasted to Iran's French influence). I wonder how Pashto and Dari got this pronunciation? Thanks in...
  19. S

    Urdu, Persian, Pashto: Just be yourself

    Dear forum members, I would like to know how you would apply the cliche of "just be yourself" or even "don't be yourself" in the languages mentioned. Kindly for the ease of all readers attempt to write preferrably in both scripts and most importantly include the Roman script for ease in...
  20. S

    Persian, Urdu, Pashto: Lifetime Achievement Award

    Dear forum members, Could you kindly forward the variants of the accolade known as a "Lifetime Achievement Award" in the languages given above; preferrably in both scripts (Roman and Nastaliq) for affording proper pronunciation. To all those who contribute a whole-hearted Muteshekkiram.
  21. S

    Pashto: Goodbye

    Dear forum members, I just wanted to know what is the correct pronunciation for goodbye in Pashto is it Da Khuday Pa Amaan or Da Khudaii Pa Amaan? Manana, Sheikh
  22. G

    Pashto: nukona trangawal

    What is the meaning in English and Urdu of " nukona trangawal"
  23. G

    Pashto: yara kho no

    Would someone translate the "yara kho no" from oashto to Urdu and english
  24. G

    Pashto: Day Jolai ta ogorai zama khpalwaan osata janguna makawai

    Would anyone translate this phrase to Urdu and English? ailaan waurai. Day Jolai ta ogorai zama khpalwaan osata janguna makawai. Shukar day che pa pukhto na pohege. Ailaan khatam sho.
  25. M

    Aryana Warsha >Parsha Vaeja > Pashto

    Isn't Vaeja in Aryana Vaeja related to Pashto Warsha and akin to forms like Parsha/Parshu and Pashto V : W: P and j : sh ?
  26. WannaBFluent

    Pashto: دروغجن (liar)

    السلام عليکم, ښې چارې ايا ته په پښتو خبرې کولى شې؟ I have a question, I already know that دروغجن means liar (adj), and : هغه دروغجن دی - he is such a liar But how do we have to pronounce it? Can you please write the transliteration? مننه ښه ورز ولری
  27. P

    Pashto: IPA Pronunciation for Malala Yousafzai

    Greetings, Can someone provide and authoritative IPA pronunciation for Malala Yousafzai. Please use only the IPA subset for English.
  28. WannaBFluent

    Pashto: Choice

    Hello, I already know that ښکلی means 'beautiful'. However, I read somewhere that it means 'choice' (but I think it is a mistake, or maybe it can mean 'choice' in some contexts) and then, they say that another commonly used word is ښايسته but does it also means 'beautiful' as a synonym of ښکلی...
  29. WannaBFluent

    Pashto: singular form indicating plural

    Hello, Can you explain why these two words : - ورځې - singural oblique case of ورځ instead of the plural oblique case ورځو - دقيقې - singural oblique case of دقيق instead of the plural oblique case دقيقو Are in the singular form in these two sentences : - دوې ورځی وروسته // dwé wrazé wrusta...
  30. WannaBFluent

    Pashto: صنف

    Hello, Can you help me with the following, I have difficulties to understand it. How would you translate this : صنف, طپقه, ډله, درجه دتبهک پر ډول ویشل, پر طپقو ويشل Thank you very much.
  31. WannaBFluent

    Pashto: غوا plural forms

    Hello, I am currently reading a book about Pashto, called "Parlons Pashto, Langue et Culture de l'Afghanistan" and there is something quite confusing to me. For the word "cow" ghwA غوا, they explain the following : - PLURAL - DIRECT CASE : غواګانو (ghwAwé/ghwAgAné) - PLURAL - OBLIQUE CASE ...
  32. WannaBFluent

    Pashto: dialectal pronunciation differences

    Hello, I wanted to know all the dialectal pronunciation differences of Pashto. Here is what I know : ږ // north : [g] ; south : [j] ئ // north : [è] ; south : [ay] ځ // north : [dz] ; south : [tz] ښ // north : [x] ; south : [sh] Is there more? thanks!
  33. WannaBFluent

    Pashto: Ma Ta Khatoona Pa Pukhto Ke Likha

    Please can someone translate into English the following and please give the Pashto lyrics (with Arabic/Persian letters) : Pa pradey jaba ki izhaar da muhabat ma kawa. Pa khpala shta jaba ke yaara da aadat ma kawa. Ma ta khatona pa pukhto ki leka. Pa kal ke eo khat ralega. .... Thank you very...
  34. S

    Bactrian παϸτο meaning "Pashto"?

    Hi, I just came upon a Bactrian word pasht <παϸτο> ( Does it mean Pashto? If not, what does it mean? What's its etymology? Thank you.
  35. S

    Pashto: Kaushan

    Kushan Pass is also known as Kaoshan Pass. 1) Is Kushan pronounced Kaoshan with the diphthong /aw/ in all dialects of Pashto? If not, which dialect of Pashto has the pronunciation Kaoshan (northwest/central, northeast, southwest, southeast)? 2) How did the diphthong /aw/ come about? Is there...
  36. P

    Pashto "Poh" ~ "Intelligent"

    Greetings, G. Morgenstierne in his etymological work on Pashto cites no obvious etymology for Pashto "poh" ~ "knowing, intelligent". He only points out the possibility of a connection with Avestan "pah-" ~ "see", in an uncertain way. His work, "An Etymological Vocabulary of Pashto", belongs to...
  37. S

    Orto-Pashto [Urdu-Pashtu/Pashto]

    I was listening to a speech and this word appeared. I have not been able to find in on the Web and I was wondering if this word actually exists? "Middle East media research institute which is based on a very large translation project which is really designed to make Arabs, Iranians, people who...
  38. M

    Pashto/Hindi: mutual intelligibility

    Hi :) I knew some afghan people who spoke only pashto, nothing else. They were all massive fans of bollywood films which I think are in urdu or hindi and they seemed to understand these films. I find this odd as pashto is a persian language and Hindi is indo-aryan...If you speak pashto can you...
  39. UrduMedium

    Urdu/Hindi/Pashto: Pathan vs Pashtun/Pakhtun ...

    I have heard that the name paThaan is derived from pashtuun/paxtuun. While paThaan does sound similar to the the other two, I'm curious if there's more to it. After all there seems to be no hindrance in pronouncing pashtuun/pakhtuun (x to kh shift) in at least most North Indian languages. So why...
  40. L

    Pashto: hujrah

    Can someone explain in detail what the cultural significance of hujrah is for Pashtoons?
  41. J

    Pashto: day (he) vs. day (is)

    My textbook says the first and last word of the following sentence are pronounced differently: "day almanay day" (He is german.) The first word is supposed to rhyme with "saray" (man) and "shay" (thing) and the latter with "way" (as in "taso cherta way?" "Where were you?") and "dzey" (as in...
  42. panjabigator

    Pashto: د "da" possesive preposition

    Greetings all, In my Pashto class, we learned that the possessive preposition "da" goes before the possessing noun. I.e., "da zalmai laas" would be "Zalmai's hand." I've also noticed (but unfortunately forgot the example) that some speakers use this preposition as a postposition: "zalmai da...
  43. Jabir

    Pashto: Souce of these texts

    I saw a book named Selection of the Poetry of the Afghans, from a folk called Mr. Raverty (translator). He says he translated the poems from various manuscripts and sources. I would like to know if there is any link to the original poems in Pashto of the following poets: Æabd-ur-Raḥmān...
  44. panjabigator

    Pashto: gap zadan

    Greetings: Is there an equivalent to the Persian "gap zadan" in Pashto that uses the verb "wehal?" Perhaps "gap wehal?" Would this sentence make sense: "gap wahanaa maa raa der khwaakhaa dah?"
  45. panjabigator

    Pashto: tala pukhto hoom darzi?

    I believe this is saying "you also know Pashto," but I can't decode it exactly. Is it: تہ لا پښتو ھوم در ځی؟ What is this "hoom" and "dar" mean here? Much obliged, PG
  46. L

    Pashto: -wali (in Pashtunwali)

    What does it means "pasthunwali"? It's "the way of pasthun", but what does "way" means? manner?or journay? I would like to know the italian translation of Pasthunwali. Thanks
  47. panjabigator

    Pashto: pronunciation of خ and ح

    Greetings: My Pashto instructor's name is رحمان, but he typically pronounces it as رخمان and transliterates his name as 'Rakhmon.' Is there something about the pronunciation of خ and ح, or is this an idiosyncrasy restricted to his speech? PG
  48. panjabigator

    Pashto: to get married

    Greetings, Is the phrase for "to get married" different for men and women? وادہ کیږم is all I know, but I think there is another way to say this, maybe. PG
  49. panjabigator

    Pashto: from

    Greetings, My Pashto is quite elementary, but I understand that the second postposition څخہ can also be written as نہ or ہ. I have two questions regarding this point: Is it common to use the latter two in lieu of څخہ when the preceding noun ends in a vowel or consonant, respectively? Does the...
  50. panjabigator

    Pashto: Happy New Years

    سلام اور سال نو مبارک سبھی کو! میں یہ جاننا چا رھا تھا کہ زبان پختو میں .سال نو مبارک کو ھم کیا کہتے ھیں؟ میری کوشش: د نوی کال مبارک. آپ کی بڑی نوازش، پی جی