syriac (syriac aramaic)

  1. zaw

    Syriac: adjective in the absolute state without expressed subject

    Hi, If the subject is a third person pronoun, one does not need to mention it explicitly. Does that mean that ܛܳܒ is a complete sentence meaning "He/it is good." and ܛܳܒܳܐ is a complete sentence meaning "She is good."? Note that both of them are adjectives, not verbs! Toda raba
  2. zaw

    Syriac: ܓܪܒܐ

    Hi, In the word ܓܪܒܐ the b is spirantized when it means leprosy but not spirantized when it means leper. Why? In both cases it has a non-vowel before it. If there is no vowel, there should be no spirantization either. Right? Toda raba
  3. R

    Syriac: the one who fixes and corrects things

    Hi, What do we call the one who fixes and corrects things in Syriac? For example, when he finds a rock blocking the road, he removes it, and when he finds a lost one, he takes him to his place, etc.!
  4. S

    Syriac: ā > o

    Hi everyone In West Syriac pronunciation all the long a's have shifted to o. Is this the Canaanite shift in Aramaic? They say ܟܝܦܐ as kifo, not kipā. Thanks
  5. flockhat

    Syriac: ܩܛܠ݂ܬ݁

    Hi guys, When you write "She killed" in Estrangela you write ܩܛܠ݂ܬ݁. What is the function of the two dots here? Note that one is above the last letter and one is below the second-last letter. Thanks again
  6. A

    Syriac: preformative ܢ in present tense

    In Aramaic the third person masculine forms (both singular & plural) and third person feminine plural have the preformative י, as in Arabic (يفعل يفعلون يفعلن). But in Syriac you always encounter an ܢ instead. Does ܝ ever occur as the preformative in Syriac? And does anyone know when the shift...
  7. A

    Syriac: ܐܶܫܬܰܘܚܰܪ

    Both ܐܶܫܬܰܘܚܰܪ and ܐܰܘܚܰܪ mean "(to) delay". Is the first the passive of the second? Is the second transitive and the first not? Isn't the passive of aphel ettaphal?
  8. flockhat

    Syriac: ܐܶܙܰܠ̱ܬ

    Hi guys, To say 'she went' you say ܐܶܙܰܠ̱ܬ. Is this pronounced ezat or ezzat? Thanks again
  9. A

    Aramaic: agent of passive verb/participle

    In Syriac you indicate the agent of a passive verb by using ܡܢ and the agent of a passive participle by using ܠ. Like ܡܐܡܪܐ ܕܥܒܝܕ ܠܩܕܝܫܐ ܡܪܝ ܐܦܪܝܡ means a memra composed by the holy Mar Ephrem and ܐܬܦܩܕ ܡܢ ܫܠܝܚܐ means it was commanded by the apostle What about in biblical Aramaic? Do you use...
  10. zaw

    Syriac: assimilation of ܠ in ܣܠܩ

    Hi, Is there a reason why in some forms of the verb ܣܠܩ (to go up) the ܠ assimilates to the following letter? Even in the Old Testament we have הַסִּ֙קוּ֙ in כָּל־קֳבֵ֣ל דְּנָ֗ה מִן־דִּ֞י מִלַּ֤ת מַלְכָּא֙ מַחְצְפָ֔ה וְאַתּוּנָ֖א אֵזֵ֣ה יַתִּ֑ירָא גֻּבְרַיָּ֣א אִלֵּ֗ךְ דִּ֤י הַסִּ֙קוּ֙...
  11. V

    Syriac: three consonants in a row at the beginning of a word

    Hi The plurals of ܨܒܘܽܬܳܐ (thing) and ܨܠܘܿܬܳܐ (prayer) are respectively ܨܶܒ̈ܘܳܬܳܐ and ܨܠܱ̈ܘܳܬܳܐ. It is clear that when the plurals were formed, the vowel (u and o, respectively) turned into consonants (ܘ in both cases). This resulted in three consonants in a row at the beginning of the word...
  12. A

    Syriac: pleonastic dative

    Luke 2:45: ܘܠܐ ܐܫܟܚܘܗܝ ܘܗܦܟܘ ܠܗܘܢ ܬܘܒ ܠܐܘܪܫܠܡ ܘܒܥܝܢ ܗܘܘ ܠܗ ܀ When they did not find him, they returned to Jerusalem to search for him. This use of the preposition ܠ is called the pleonastic dative. What does that mean and how is it represented in the translation?
  13. A

    Syriac: how to add objective pronominal suffixes

    Is there a rule for deciding how to add an objective pronominal suffix to a verb? Because the connecting vowel varies, and sometimes the verb itself changes too. Like ܩܛܰܠܬ݁ܳܢܝ and ܩܛܰܠܬ݁ܝܺܢܝ both mean "you killed me", but the vowel changes in each one.
  14. V

    Syriac: spirantization of -ṯā

    Hi In another thread someone mentioned that the feminine termination -ṯā is always spirantized, even if there is no vowel before it, as in ܐܰܡܬܳܐ (maidservant). That person said that ܡܵܪܬ݁ܝ (feminine of ܡܵܪܝ) was an exception. But there seem to be many more exceptions, like: ܐܰܪܡܰܠܬܳܐ widow...
  15. A

    Syriac: from דנה to ܗܢܐ

    In Syriac "this" (for masculine) is ܗܳܢܳܐ but in Aramaic it was דּנָה. Did the ד change into ה? I don't think so, because in the feminine form this did not happen. Look at דָּא and ܗܳܕܶܐ. They both have kept the ד.
  16. zaw

    Syriac: ܚܳܣ

    Hi, Matthew 16:22 - ܘܕ݂ܰܒ݂ܪܶܗ ܟ݁ܺܐܦ݂ܳܐ ܘܫܰܪܺܝ ܠܡܶܟ݂ܳܐܐ ܒ݁ܶܗ ܘܶܐܡܰܪ ܚܳܣ ܠܳܟ݂ ܡܳܪܝ ܕ݁ܬ݂ܶܗܘܶܐ ܠܳܟ݂ ܗܳܕ݂ܶܐ ܀ This means "Then Peter took him, and began to rebuke him, saying, Be it far from thee, Lord: this shall not be unto thee." Does ܚܳܣ mean "far be it"? If it does then it seems to be related...
  17. A

    Syriac: ܩܰܪܶܒ

    In Syriac the verb ܩܰܪܶܒ is meaning "to offer". Is this the causative meaning of the peal (ground) stem, which is ܩܪܶܒ (meaning "to draw near, touch"). These meanings are given in the glossary of Coakley's book on page 162. Robinson’s Paradigms and Exercises in Syriac Grammar 6TH EDITION by J...
  18. R

    Verbal sentence in Aramaic

    The verbal sentence in Arabic can begins with a singular or plural verb like خاطبني الناس خاطبوني الناس Is it the same in Aramaic, or they only use plural verb with plural subject?
  19. zaw

    Syriac: active participle from ground stem

    Hi, What is the difference between ܩܳܛܶܠ and ܩܳܛܽܘܿܠ when both are active participles? I don't mean this root (q t l) specifically but in general. Here are some examples: ܢܳܛܶܪ and ܢܳܛܽܘܪ both mean keeper ܩܳܛܶܠ and ܩܳܛܽܘܿܠ both mean killer ܦܳܪܶܩ and ܦܳܪܽܘܩ both mean savior Toda raba
  20. S

    Syriac: feminine nouns with variable and invariable vowels‏‏

    Hi everyone Look at these two sentences: ܡܰܠܟܬܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܚܒܰܪܬܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ The first means "She is the queen" and the second sentence means "She is the companion." Now, the absolute state of queen is ܡܰܠܟܳܐ and construct state is ܡܰܠܟܰܬ, and the absolute state of companion (female) is ܚܰܒܪܳܐ and...
  21. flockhat

    Syriac: taph'el‏‏

    Some dictionaries give ܬܰܠܡܶܕ as a conjugation of ܠܡܕ. Specifically, they say it is from the stem taph'el. Are there any other examples of this stem? I have never come across any.
  22. flockhat

    Syriac: ܕܝܢ

    Hi guys, The translation of ܣܠܩ ܗܘܐ ܕܝܢ ܐܦ ܝܘܣܦ (Luke 2:4) is Joseph too had gone up. What does ܕܝܢ mean here? Thanks again
  23. zaw

    Syriac: Using ܐܝܬ or ܠܝܬ with an infinitive

    Hi, In Hebrew we use יש or אין with an infinitive to mean "you must" or "you must not" respectively. Like יש לך ללכת or אין לך ללכת. In Syriac are ܐܝܬ and ܠܝܬ used in the same way? Like ܐܝܬ ܠܢ ܠܡܫܡܥ Toda raba
  24. S

    Syriac: -ayyā

    Hi everyone The emphatic plural ending in Syriac is usually -ē, but the word ܒܢܱ̈ܝܳܐ (singular: ܒܪܳܐ son) has the older Aramaic ending -ayyā. Are there any other examples of this ending on emphatic plural words in Syriac? Thanks
  25. A

    Syriac: loss of short vowels

    Is the reason why ܥܳܠܰܡ (world) becomes ܥܳܠܡܳܐ when emphatic because short vowels are eliminated in all non-accented syllables? If not, what is the rule here and in so many other words, like ܟܗܢܐ (priest)?
  26. zaw

    Syriac: My grace is sufficient for you.

    Hi, If I want to say My grace is sufficient for you. which one is better ܣܳܦܩܳܐ ܗ̱ܝ ܠܳܟ ܛܰܝܒܘܽܬܝ ܣܳܦܩܳܐ ܠܳܟ ܛܰܝܒܘܽܬܝ Toda raba
  27. V

    Syriac: ܡܛܠ followed by pronominal suffix

    Hi When ܡܛܠ "because of, for the sake of, concerning" is followed by a pronominal suffix, a ܬ is inserted in between the two, e.g. ܡܛܠܬܟܝ "for your (fs) sake". ܡܛܠ, of course, is pronounced meṭṭul, but is ܡܛܠܬ pronounced meṭṭulāt or meṭṭlāt? Thank you so much
  28. V

    Syriac: The house is his.

    Hi "The house is the king's" would be ܒܝܬܐ ܗܘ ܕܡܠܟܐ. But how would you say "The house is his"? Thank you so much
  29. V

    Syriac: ܒܝܢܝ ܘܠܟܝ‎‎

    Hi In the phrase ܒܝܢܝ ܘܠܟܝ "between me and you" what is the function of the preposition ܠ? Why isn't it ܒܝܢܝ ܘܒܝܢܝܟܝ? Thank you so much
  30. flockhat

    Syriac: binyan corresponding to Aramaic hophal

    Hi guys, In biblical Aramaic the hophal binyan (passive of the haphel) occurs. Thus, we encounter הֻכְתַּב. Does Syriac have a corresponding stem? Thanks again
  31. zaw

    Syriac: adjective in construct state

    Hi, Nouns have three states: emphatic, construct, and absolute. What about adjectives? Do they ever have a construct state? It is hard to imagine them being in such a state. Toda raba
  32. zaw

    Syriac: how to form absolute and construct singular forms of nouns and adjectives

    Hi, It is very common to have nouns and adjectives that change their vowels in their three states: emphatic, absolute, and construct. Like ܥܣܶܩ ܡܠܶܟ ܪܓܶܠ ܒܣܰܪ ܓܫܽܘܡ ܕܗܰܒ ܙܒܰܢ All of the above nouns look different in their emphatic state. What is the rule for deciding how to form the absolute...
  33. V

    Syriac: preposition followed by ܕ‎

    Hi Sometimes a preposition has a pronominal suffix, and immediately after it you have ܕ with a noun after it, and the pronoun matches the noun in gender, person, and number. What is the meaning of this construction? E.g. ܒܗ ܕܟܬܒܐ. The second part means "of a book", of course. Thank you so much
  34. zaw

    Syriac: ܗ̱ܘ

    Hi, In I Corinthians 14:36 what does ܡܢܟܘܢ ܗ̱ܘ ܒܦܩܬ ܡܠܬܗ ܕܐܠܗܐ mean? Actually, what does ܗ̱ܘ mean? I think I can understand ܡܢܟܘܢ ܗ̱ܘ ܒܦܩܬ ܡܠܬܗ ܕܐܠܗܐ overall because it seems to mean Did God's word come out of you (plural)? Toda raba
  35. V

    Syriac: repeated preposition

    Hi Sometimes a preposition has a pronominal suffix, and immediately after it the preposition is repeated with a noun after it, and the pronoun matches the noun in gender, person, and number. What is the purpose of this repetition? E.g. ܒܗ ܒܟܬܒܐ. The second part means "in a book", of course...
  36. A

    Syriac: absolute/construct form vs form with 1st person single pronoun suffix

    Since ܡܠܟܝ is pronounced without the pronoun suffix at the end (even though it is written), why isn't it pronounced mlek like the absolute or construct form ܡܠܟ? Why is it pronounced malk?
  37. zaw

    Syriac: feminine dot

    Hi, In Syriac when you want to say "her" like "her book" or "her books" you must put a dot above the final letter. Is this actually the mappiq of Hebrew and Aramaic? ܟܬܒܗ݀ her book ܟܬܒܝܗ݀ her books Toda raba
  38. zj73

    Syriac: ܝܘܠܦܢܐ

    Why is the ܦ of ܝܘܠܦܢܐ (learning, teaching, doctrine) spirantized?
  39. S

    Syriac: position of predicate‏‏

    Hi everyone In Hebrew the predicate in a nominal sentence can come before or after the subject IF the predicate is an adjective (otherwise, it will always come after the subject). What about in Syriac? Does ܡܠܟܐ ܛܒ mean the same thing as ܛܒ ܡܠܟܐ, i.e. The king is good. Thanks
  40. S

    Syriac: use of the copula‏‏

    Hi everyone Is it more usual to use the copula than to leave it out? I know that ܛܒ ܡܠܟܐ and ܛܒ ܗܘ ܡܠܟܐ mean the same thing, i.e. The king is good. Thanks
  41. zaw

    Syriac: passive of peal stem

    Hi, What stem is the passive of the ground (peal) steam? In Aramaic it was the peil stem and in Hebrew it is the niphal. What is it in Syriac? Toda raba
  42. flockhat

    Syriac: emphatic state

    Hi guys, In Syriac how do you use the emphatic state to show that a word is definite? The only way I can think of is the following: if it is the direct object, then you can show that the word is definite by taking a word in the emphatic state and prefixing the preposition ܠ to it. Other than...
  43. flockhat

    Syriac: construct state

    Hi guys, In Syriac you can show possession by putting the particle ܕ between two nouns. So, is the construct state ever used? If so, when? There seems to be no need for it to ever be used. Thanks again
  44. A

    Syriac: This is the house of God.

    How do you say This is the house of God ܗܢܘ ܒܝܬܐ ܕܐܠܗܐ or ܗܢܐ ܒܝܬܐ ܗܘ ܕܐܠܗܐ or some other way?
  45. flockhat

    Syriac: omission of dot on bgdkpt letter

    Hi guys, Is there a rule that whenever you have one of the six bgdkpt letters at the beginning of a word you should omit both ܩܘܫܝܐ and ܪܘܟܟܐ? You never see ܟ݁ܬ݂ܰܒ݂ but rather ܟܬ݂ܰܒ݂. Thanks again
  46. S

    Syriac: spirantization of bgdkpt

    Hi everyone Why is the last consonant of ܡܰܠܟܳܐ and ܕܰܗܒܳܐ spirantized? There is no vowel before them. Thanks
  47. S

    Syriac: ܡܶܛܽܠ and ܟܽܠ

    Hi everyone In ܡܶܛܽܠ and ܟܽܠ the vowel is "o", not "u", so why is it written with "u"? Thanks
  48. flockhat

    Syriac: syllable-initial yod with ܚܒ݂ܳܨܳܐ‎

    Hi guys, Is ܝܺܬܶܒ (He sat) pronounced yiteb or iteb? Actually, is it pronounced yithev or ithev? Because t becomes th and b becomes v because they are one of the six special letters. I may be mistaken but I think the reason why this word has a ܚܒ݂ܳܨܳܐ‎ in the beginning (even though the peal...
  49. zaw

    Syriac: ܘܙܡܪܘ ܫܘܒܚܐ ܒܢܘ̈ܗܝ ܕܓܢܘܢܐ

    Hi, In The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus (I Sette Dormienti di Efeso) the Syriac version says ܬܘܒ ܕܝܠܗ ܥܠ ܛ̈ܠܝܐ ܕܐܦܣܘܣ ܒܪ ܐܠܗܐ ܕܦܬܝܚ ܬܪܥܗ ܠܕܩܪܐ ܠܗ. ܦܬܚ ܠܝ ܬܪܥܟ ܐܙܡܪ ܫܘܦܪܐ ܕܒܢܝ ܢܘܣܪܐ ܕܥܢܝ ܛܒܐ ܕܡܢ ܓܘ ܥܢܗ ܐܡܪ̈ܐܓܒܐ ܠܗ ܘܟܢܫ ܐܢܘܢ ܒܕܝܪܐ ܕܪܘܡܐ ܕܥܡܗ ܢܗܘܘܢ ܒܪܝܟ ܐܟܪܐ ܕܡܢ ܙܝܙ̈ܢܐ ܚ̈ܛܐ ܓܒܐ ܠܗ. ܘܙܪܥ ܐܢܘܢܒܐܫܟܪ...
  50. zaw

    Syriac: two dots beneath a letter in Nestorian script

    Hi, In the Nestorian script you sometimes have two dots beneath a letter. Do they always represent the "e" sound? What about in the word ܡܹܐܡܪܵܐ? I don't think it represents "e" here because in the Jacobite script you have ܡܺܐܡܪܳܐ, not ܡܶܐܡܪܳܐ. Toda raba
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