לשחרר

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Ali Smith

Senior Member
Urdu - Pakistan
שלום!

I know the root letters of le-shakharer are ח ר ר (it's obviously cognate with the Arabic ح ر ر). What is the purpose of the ש in the beginning? What stem is this?

Thank you!
 
  • Drink

    Senior Member
    English - New England, Russian - Moscow
    A little background: In some older Semitic languages, including Akkadian, the causative stem (what in Hebrew is the "hif'il" and in Arabic is the form IV أفعل) was characterized by the "sh-" prefix rather than the Hebrew "ה" or Arabic "أ".

    This form of creating the causative meaning was then borrowed by Aramaic speakers to create the "shaf'el" binyan in Aramaic. Then Hebrew borrowed this concept from Aramaic, but patterned them as 4-letter pi'el verbs rather than equating them with the hif'il. So essentially the addition of the ש root letter creates a four-letter root with a causative meaning.

    Some examples:
    - שחרר to free
    - שעבד to enslave
    - שחזר to return
    - שכנע to persuade
     

    Ali Smith

    Senior Member
    Urdu - Pakistan
    Thank you so much, Drink! What about לשדרג, which my dictionary translates as "monter en grade (to promote)"?
     

    Ali Smith

    Senior Member
    Urdu - Pakistan
    Thanks! It's derived from דרג dereg (échelon = rung), I think. It makes sense because when you promote someone, you move him or her up a rung.
    We should make a list of such verbs.
     

    Drink

    Senior Member
    English - New England, Russian - Moscow
    Yes, exactly.

    Probably most 4-letter roots that start with ש are examples of this (except for "reduplicative" ones like שעשע or שלשל).
     

    Abaye

    Senior Member
    Hebrew
    בעברית החדשה חזרו להשתמש בבניין שפעל, לפעמים כחלופה לבניין הפעיל (שכנע, שכפל) ולפעמים כתחליף לקידומת הלועזית re- (שעתק, שכתב, שחזר). יש מחלוקת אם אפשר לקרוא ל"שפעל" בניין בעברית הישראלית, או שמדובר בשורש של ארבעה עיצורים השייך לבניין פיעל.
    בניינים בעברית – ויקיפדיה
     
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