מכתב הקוצר

S1234

Senior Member
Urdu
Hi everyone

Below is an ancient Hebrew inscription:

𐤉𐤔𐤌𐤏 𐤀𐤃𐤍𐤉 𐤄𐤔𐤓
𐤀𐤕 𐤃𐤁𐤓 𐤏𐤁𐤃𐤄 𐤏𐤁𐤃𐤊
𐤒𐤑𐤓 𐤄𐤉𐤄 𐤏𐤁𐤃𐤊 𐤁𐤇
𐤑𐤓 𐤀𐤎𐤌 𐤅𐤉𐤒𐤑𐤓 𐤏𐤁𐤃𐤊
𐤅𐤉𐤊𐤋 𐤅𐤀𐤎𐤌 𐤊𐤉𐤌𐤌 𐤋𐤐𐤍𐤉 𐤔𐤁
𐤕 𐤊𐤀𐤔𐤓 𐤊𐤋 𐤏𐤁𐤃𐤊 𐤀𐤕 𐤒𐤑𐤓 𐤅𐤀
𐤎𐤌 𐤊𐤉𐤌𐤌 𐤅𐤉𐤁𐤀 𐤄𐤅𐤔𐤏𐤉𐤄𐤅 𐤁𐤍 𐤔𐤁
𐤉 𐤅𐤉𐤒𐤇 𐤀𐤕 𐤁𐤂𐤃 𐤏𐤁𐤃𐤊 𐤊𐤀𐤔𐤓 𐤊𐤋𐤕
𐤀𐤕 𐤒𐤑𐤓𐤉 𐤆𐤄 𐤉𐤌𐤌 𐤋𐤒𐤇 𐤀𐤕 𐤁𐤂𐤃 𐤏𐤁𐤃𐤊
𐤅𐤊𐤋 𐤀𐤇𐤉 𐤉𐤏𐤍𐤅 𐤋𐤉 𐤄𐤒𐤑𐤓𐤌 𐤀𐤕𐤉 𐤁𐤇𐤌
𐤄𐤔 𐤌𐤔 𐤀𐤇𐤉 𐤉𐤏𐤍𐤅 𐤋𐤉 𐤀𐤌𐤍 𐤍𐤒𐤕𐤉 𐤌𐤀
𐤔𐤌 𐤁𐤂𐤃𐤉 𐤅𐤀𐤌𐤋𐤀 𐤋𐤔𐤓 𐤋𐤄𐤔
𐤉𐤁 𐤏𐤁𐤃𐤊 𐤀𐤋𐤅 𐤓𐤇
𐤌𐤌 𐤅𐤄𐤔𐤁𐤕 𐤀𐤕 𐤁𐤂𐤃 𐤏𐤁𐤃𐤊 𐤅𐤋𐤀 𐤕𐤃𐤄𐤌 𐤍

Here it is in the Aramaic alphabet:

ישמע אדני השר
את דבר עבדה עבדך
קצר היה עבדך בח
צר אסם ויקצר עבדך
ויכל ואסם כימם לפני שב
ת כאשר כל עבדך את קצר וא
סם כימם ויבא הושעיהו בן שב
י ויקח את בגד עבדך כאשר כלת
את קצרי זה ימם לקח את בגד עבדך
וכל אחי יענו לי הקצרם אתי בחם
הש מש אחי יענו לי אמן נקתי מא
שם בגדי ואמלא לשר להש
יב עבדך אלו רח
מם והשבת את בגד עבדך ולא תדהם נ

Let my lord, the governor, hear the word of his servant! Your servant is a reaper. Your servant was in Hazar Asam, and your servant reaped, and he finished, and he was storing up (the grain) during these days before the Sabbath. When your servant had finished the harvest, and was storing (the grain) during these days, Hoshavyahu came, the son of Shobi, and he seized the garment of your servant, when I had finished my harvest. It (is already now some) days (since) he took the garment of your servant. And all my companions can bear witness for me - they who reaped with me in the heat of the harvest - yes, my companions can bear witness for me. Amen! I am innocent from guilt. And he stole my garment! It is for the governor to give back the garment of his servant. So grant him mercy in that you return the garment of your servant and do not be displeased.

My questions are:

1. Why does עבדה have ה at the end instead of ו?
2. What kind of noun is כימם? What are its roots?
3. What does ואמלא mean? Is it a noun or a verb? What are its roots?

Thanks!
 
  • radagasty

    Senior Member
    Australia, Cantonese
    1. Why does עבדה have ה at the end instead of ו?
    The historical form of the 3ms. pronominal suffix was -hu, as it still is in Arabic عبده, for instance.
    Cf. the alternation between אָבִיהוּ and the contracted form אָבִיו in Hebrew.

    2. What kind of noun is כימם? What are its roots?
    I imagine that this is the preposition יָמִים + כ written defectively.

    3. What does ואמלא mean? Is it a noun or a verb? What are its roots?
    There is a problem with this part of the text, as I don't see where the translation “And he stole my garment!” came from. I suppose there is a verb missing before בגדי, but stole seems entirely speculative. At any rate, I would translate the next part differently, as “my garment, and I shall pay the governor in full to return (it)”, interpreting ואמלא as the weyiqtol וַאֲמַלֵּא from the root מלא to be full. I rather suspect that the verb missing before בגדי might be an imperative of some sort, say הָשֵׁב, for instance.

    הָשֵׁב בִּגְדִּי וַאֲמַלֵּא לַשַּׂר לְהָשִׁיב
    Return my garment, and I shall pay the governor in full to return it.
     

    Drink

    Senior Member
    English - New England, Russian - Moscow
    Even in the Bible, ה is often found for the 3ms possessive pronoun in place of ו. It is the older spelling.
     
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