I hope this within the topic but even reading the textbooks and the threads in this forums, I haven't found the rules on how to read letters ئ ؤ أ in the middle of a word. The rules on when to write these letters are complex enough but I'm interested if there are definite rules on how to read them. Can they be read as 'a, 'u, 'i or a', u', i' or a'a, a'u and a'i and other combinations? The last set shows that you just need to know the short vowel of the preceding consonant but the vowel following the glottal stop will be determined by the letter carrying it? -- Also, is there more than one version of letter ئ ? With hamza sitting on the left and on the right corner?