باب الإفعال

sparack

Member
Urdu
Hi, thanks for your reply to my previous question.

Here's another:

In what way(s) does the fourth form (باب الإفعال) change the meaning of what it is derived from?
 
  • Ali Smith

    Senior Member
    Urdu - Pakistan
    It has one of the following meanings:

    1. Causative

    When you have a verb from the fourth stem (باب الإفعال), its subject (فاعل) causes its object (مفعول به) to perform the action indicated by the same root letters in the ground stem (الثلاثي المجرد). Therefore, it is used to make a verb transitive (متعدي) if it is intransitive (لازم) in the ground stem. E.g.,

    جرى - He ran.
    أجراه - He made him run.

    جلس - He sat.
    أجلسه - He sat him.

    نَجا - He escaped.
    أنجاه - He set him at liberty./He saved him./He rescued him.

    If the verb is already متعدي in الثلاثي المجرد, it is used to increase the number of مفعول بهs by one.

    For example, the following verbs already took a مفعول به in الثلاثي المجرد:

    أكل الخبزَ - He ate the bread.
    آكله الخبزَ - He fed him bread.

    رأى الشيءَ - He saw the thing.
    أراه الشيءَ - He showed him the thing.

    The following verbs already took two مفعول بهs in الثلاثي المجرد, so in باب الإفعال they take three:

    علِمتُ زيدًا فاضلاً - I knew that Zaid is excellent.
    أعلمت عمرًا زيدًا فاضلاً - I told Amr that Zaid is excellent.

    2. Declarative/estimative

    If the ground stem has an adjectival meaning, i.e. 'to be(come) X' (where X is an adjective), then the fourth stem means 'to declare (something) to be X' or 'to think (something) X/to find (something) to be X'; e.g.,

    بخُل - He was (or became) miserly.
    أبخله - He thought him miserly./He found him to be miserly.

    جبُن - He was (or became) cowardly.
    أجبنه - He thought him cowardly./He found him to be cowardly.
     
    Last edited:

    Zohare Jamal

    New Member
    English
    In your other post you mentioned that the second stem can mean "to make (something) X". I think the same meaning exists in the fourth. khaziya (to be despicable) - akhzaa (to make despicable)
     

    Ali Smith

    Senior Member
    Urdu - Pakistan
    You're right.

    1. Causative

    ذهب - He went.
    أذهبه - He made him go.

    2. Declarative/estimative

    حبّ - He was (or became) an object of love.

    For example,
    حبّ إليّ هذا الشيءُ - This thing was (or became) an object of love to me.

    أحبّه - He thought him an object of love./He loved him.

    3. Factitive

    خَزِيَ - He was (or became) despicable/ignominious.
    أخزاه - He made him despicable/ignominious.

    For example,
    ما له أخزاه الله - What's wrong with him? May God make him despicable/ignominious.
     
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