# حتى

#### dcstudent

##### Member
When does حتي become حرف الجر and when does it become حرف العطف?
قضيت حقه حتى ما بقي علي شيء
in this sentence, is حتى harful jar or harful atf?? How will i understand it?

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• Preposition
حتى
until, as far as, to the point of, even up to
‏أَكَلْتُ ٱلسَّمَكَةَ حَتَّى رَأْسِهَا‎
I ate the fish, until its head

Conjunction
حَتَّى
- in order to, so that, to

درست حتى تصبح معلمة
She studied to become a teacher

- even
‏خَرَجَ النَّاسُ حَتَّى ٱلْأَطْفَالُ.‎‎
The people went forth, even the children

‏كُلُّ تَعْمِيمٍ بَاطِلٌ، حَتَّى هَذَا التَّعْمِيمُ.‎‎
All generalizations are false, including this one.

Preposition
حتى
until, as far as, to the point of, even up to
‏أَكَلْتُ ٱلسَّمَكَةَ حَتَّى رَأْسِهَا‎
I ate the fish, until its head

Conjunction
حَتَّى
- in order to, so that, to

درست حتى تصبح معلمة
She studied to become a teacher

- even
‏خَرَجَ النَّاسُ حَتَّى ٱلْأَطْفَالُ.‎‎
The people went forth, even the children

‏كُلُّ تَعْمِيمٍ بَاطِلٌ، حَتَّى هَذَا التَّعْمِيمُ.‎‎
All generalizations are false, including this one.
So, when it's a حرف عطف, it has the meaning of "even". Am I correct?

So, when it's a حرف عطف, it has the meaning of "even". Am I correct?
No, not necessarily. حتى is complicated and so is translation so there is a double complication here 🙂.

Mostly I’d say that when it’s حرف استئناف it means even, and when it’s حرف عطف it means and. But one can’t say that this is always the case because translation doesn’t depend solely on grammar.

Can حتى have some other meaning? What about here

قَالَ جَرِيرٌ أَتَيْتُ النَّبِىَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَهُوَ يُبَايِعُ فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ابْسُطْ يَدَكَ حَتَّى أُبَايِعَكَ وَاشْتَرِطْ عَلَىَّ فَأَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ قَالَ أُبَايِعُكَ عَلَى أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ وَتُقِيمَ الصَّلاَةَ وَتُؤْتِىَ الزَّكَاةَ وَتُنَاصِحَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَتُفَارِقَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Surely حَتَّى أُبَايِعَكَ cannot mean "until I promise allegiance to you"

Can حتى have some other meaning? What about here

قَالَ جَرِيرٌ أَتَيْتُ النَّبِىَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَهُوَ يُبَايِعُ فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ابْسُطْ يَدَكَ حَتَّى أُبَايِعَكَ وَاشْتَرِطْ عَلَىَّ فَأَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ قَالَ أُبَايِعُكَ عَلَى أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ وَتُقِيمَ الصَّلاَةَ وَتُؤْتِىَ الزَّكَاةَ وَتُنَاصِحَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَتُفَارِقَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Surely حَتَّى أُبَايِعَكَ cannot mean "until I promise allegiance to you"
"so that" indicating a consequential purpose. Like فـ or لـ or لكي/لأنْ.

Can حتى have some other meaning? What about here

قَالَ جَرِيرٌ أَتَيْتُ النَّبِىَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَهُوَ يُبَايِعُ فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ابْسُطْ يَدَكَ حَتَّى أُبَايِعَكَ وَاشْتَرِطْ عَلَىَّ فَأَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ قَالَ أُبَايِعُكَ عَلَى أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ وَتُقِيمَ الصَّلاَةَ وَتُؤْتِىَ الزَّكَاةَ وَتُنَاصِحَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَتُفَارِقَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Surely حَتَّى أُبَايِعَكَ cannot mean "until I promise allegiance to you"
Why can't it mean that? By the way, the reason why أبايع is منصوب is that there is an implied أَنْ between it and حتى. So, حتى is definitely a preposition (حرف جر) here.

Why can't it mean that? By the way, the reason why أبايع is منصوب is that there is an implied أَنْ between it and حتى. So, حتى is definitely a preposition (حرف جر) here.
Who says أَنْ is implied?

The Basran grammarians.
Actually, I believe all grammarians say this. How else would you explain the fact that the following verb is منصوب?