ربيع الأول

fdb

Senior Member
French (France)
Do we say rabīʻun-i-l-ʼawwalu (noun+adjective) or rabīʻu l-ʼawwali (ʼiḍāfa) ? I have seen both. Is there any discussion in classical grammars or pre-modern dictionaries?
 
  • Hemza

    Senior Member
    French, Mor/Hijz Arabic (heritage)
    Hello,

    we studied it not so long ago and my Arabic teacher was pronouncing it like "rabīʻu l-ʼawwali". But I don't know if both are correct or not.
     

    fdb

    Senior Member
    French (France)
    Thank you for your input, Hemza! I have looked into this some more. The preferred forms do indeed seem to be rabīʻu l-ʼawwali and rabīʻu l-ʼāxiri, which are analysed as possessive constructions of the type styled ʼiḍāfatu t-tafsīr or ʼiḍāfatu l-bayān (Wright, Arab. grammar II pp. 232-3; Reckendorf, Arab. Syntax p. 140.), as in the Qur’anic dāru l-ʼāxirati (16:30), if this in fact means the same as ad-dāru l-ʼāxiratu ‘the final abode’. Still, it seems very strange that rabīʻu l-l-ʼāxiri and jumādā l-ʼāxiratu should be construed differently.
     

    barkoosh

    Senior Member
    Arabic - Lebanon
    I think that إضافة التفسير or إضافة البيان (also called إضافة المسمّى إلى الاسم) is related to the fact that the word شهر is used with ربيع الأول. You say هذا شهرُ ربيع الأول. (See here)

    As for ربيع الأول itself, it should be ربيعٌ الأولُ (rabīʻun-i-l-ʼawwalu (noun+adjective)). Accordingly you say, هذا شهرُ ربيعٍ الأولِ. However, some say ربيعُ الأول and هذا شهرُ ربيعِ الأول, obviously to avoid using two consecutive silent letters (التنوين and أل التعريف).

    كانون الأول is also a noun+adjective construction. The difference is that كانون is a diptote: كانونُ الأولُ and هذا شهرُ كانونَ الأولِ.
     

    Arabic_Police_999

    Banned
    arabic
    كانون الأول is also a noun+adjective construction. The difference is that كانون is a diptote: كانونُ الأولُ and هذا شهرُ كانونَ الأولِ.
    hmm, isn't كانون a ممنوع من الصرف because it's not an Arabic noun
    I've never come across فبرايرُ or فبرايرَ only فبراير
     

    barkoosh

    Senior Member
    Arabic - Lebanon
    كانون and all other الأشهر السريانية are diptotes (ممنوعة من الصرف). What are called الأشهر الرومية (that is يناير - فبراير...) are also diptotes. However, they are never commonly used with a final 7araka. (Check أغسطس with a fat7a here).
     

    Qureshpor

    Senior Member
    Panjabi, Urdu پنجابی، اردو
    Thank you for your input, Hemza! I have looked into this some more. The preferred forms do indeed seem to be rabīʻu l-ʼawwali and rabīʻu l-ʼāxiri, which are analysed as possessive constructions of the type styled ʼiḍāfatu t-tafsīr or ʼiḍāfatu l-bayān (Wright, Arab. grammar II pp. 232-3; Reckendorf, Arab. Syntax p. 140.), as in the Qur’anic dāru l-ʼāxirati (16:30), if this in fact means the same as ad-dāru l-ʼāxiratu ‘the final abode’. Still, it seems very strange that rabīʻu l-l-ʼāxiri and jumādā l-ʼāxiratu should be construed differently.
    I have checked several Arabic grammar books (Thatcher, Tritton, Faruk Abu-Chahra, Abdul Sattar & Cowan) and apart from Cowan, they all give the name of this month as: ربیعُ الاولُ. Cowan, however has this as rabii3uni_l2avvalu.

    My impression is that there seems to be an ambiguity about the word rabii3, whether it is a triptote or a diptote. Those who consider it as the former write it as ربیعُ الاولُ, whilst the likes of Cowan deem it as a diptote.

    My reason for coming to this train of thought is that other months have varying forms too, for example

    muHarram-un/muHarram-u/al-muHarramu
    Safar-un/Safar-u
    rajab-un/rajab-u
    shavvaal-un/shavvaalu

    rabii3ul 2aaxiru is what is listed in Tritton. Cowan again has rabii3 as a triptote and gives this month as rabii3uni_ththaanii.

    I hope this helps.
     
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