Hello, does the word عامود mean a vertical row or list besides meaning pillar or it only means pillar?
I can't speak for Arabia as a whole but I haven't heard فاعول used as a substitute for فعول. I only know it as an independent pattern, e.g. عاصوف, جاثوم, طاعون etc., which of course exists in Fus7a as well.Is there anybody in Arabia who use فاعول instead of فعول?
So why is it spelt with an ا then?Yes, and it's pronounced عَمود.
I don't see a reason to doubt that it did, although I may be misinterpreting the intended meaning here. "[insert dialects] tend to shorten long vowels and that's why" also seems a bit hand-wavey to me. What it actually seems to be to me is that nouns which are in MSA along the lines of CaC(C)ūC have a long history of being lengthened to CāC(C)ūC, and perhaps the ū triggers some form of vowel-length assimilation or... something. Wiktionary writes, on the entry for MSA بارود's etymology,I highly doubt that Syrian فاعول evolved from classical فعول because elongation in Syrian happens only in final syllables and it is never phonemic as far as I know.
The other proposed etymology is an Armenian->Aramaic->Arabic loan that's apparently contestable because the original Armenian word has been proposed to be from Arabic بارود itself, so if the given meaning of برود "barūd" is accurate then I find this one to be exceedingly plausible. Note also the alteration between MSA ينسون and يانسون. In Lebanese (at least) there's additionally ياهود yēhūd, obviously from يهود yahūd, showing that this is productive. So I don't think عامود should be considered an anomaly or anything.Uncertain. Not a Classical Arabic word. Possible etymologies: