すでに野外は夕闇に包まれており

  • Joschl

    Member
    Japanese
    "おり" (or-i) is an adverbial form of the verb "or-u" and is semantically more or less equivalent to the so-called "te"-form of the verb "i-ru" (i.e. "i-te"). Like many other consonant-stem verbs, the verb おる also has two form variants "おって" (ot-te) and "おり" (or-i), depending on whether "-te" is attached to the base or-. "すでに野外は夕闇に包まれており" is semantically equivalent to "すでに野外は夕闇に包まれていて" but "すでに野外は夕闇に包まれており" is slightly more formal than "すでに野外は夕闇に包まれていて.
     

    Nobu.0

    Senior Member
    Japanese
    It's a conjugation of いる. If the sentence you gave was at the end of a sentence, it would be "すでに野外は夕闇に包まれている。"

    Since the sentence is not ending in your example, いる has conjugated in a way that allows a subsequent phrase to follow.

    It doesn't really have its own meaning. The whole sentence means:
    Dusk has already set in outside (literally: Dimness has surrounded the space outside)
     
    Last edited:

    Joschl

    Member
    Japanese
    Nobu.0 said:
    It's a conjugation of いる.
    I'm afraid I have to disagree.
    大辞泉 広辞苑無料検索 said:
    おる (5)(補助動詞)動詞の連用形に接続助詞「て」を添えた形に付いて用いる。㋐「…ている」の古風な、または尊大な言い方。「そこに控えて―・れ」㋑(「…ております」の形で)「…ている」の丁寧な言い方。「ただ今、外出して―・ります」https://sakura-paris.org/dict/大辞泉/prefix/おる
     

    Flaminius

    hedomodo
    日本語 / japāniski / יפנית
    More accurately, 包まれており is an periphrastic form coined out of desire to avoid 包まれていて or 包まれてい. People tend to find the former of the two too colloquial and the latter too cacophonous. [I happen to love threw in both from time to time, though]
     

    Joschl

    Member
    Japanese
    Flaminius said:
    People tend to find the former of the two too colloquial and the latter too cacophonous.
    I think that one of the determining factors as to whether the so-cold "連用中止形 (renyō-chūshi-kei)" of a verb is as frequently used as its te/de-form will be the inflection class to which that verb belongs.

    It seems to me that the 連用中止形 of a verb is least used if its stem has a single syllable/mora "(C)V-", e.g. 居 (i-), 見 (mi-) 得 (e-), 寝 (ne-), 来 (ki-), etc. The verb する (su-ru) seems to be a rare exception in this respect, which might have something to do with its general meaning.

    I hardly ever use the 連用中止形 of いる and the te-form of おる, irrespective of whether these are used as main verbs (本動詞) or auxiliary ones (補助動詞):
    "[日本]に(住んで)いて" <-> "[日本]に(住んで)い"???
    "[日本]に(住んで)おり“ <-> "[日本]に(住んで)おって"

    The forms, such as "[日本]に(住んで)い" or "包まれてい" sound odd to me but I don't know if they are also considered to be normatively ungrammatical. I'm wondering whether they were commonly used in the past.
     
    Top