-て+いる

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gossip_tongue

New Member
Spanish
皆今日は!
I'm currently learning about the verbs ある and いる and their usages, and I'm having some trouble grasping their auxiliary uses.

This grammar states that the continuous form is obtained by attaching いる to the て-form of a TRANSITIVE verb. Okay. But... What happens with intransitive verbs? For example, 遊ぶ isn't a transitive verb but one says 遊んでいます, right? That's the first example that's come to my mind, but I bet there are more.

On the other hand, according to this grammar, attaching いる to an intransitive verb results in a completely different thing, as in ドアが開いています

So here's the question: Are those rules true? Intransitive verbs can't form continuous form?

ありがとうございます!
 
  • karlalou

    Banned
    母国語:日本語
    こんにちは!

    Definitely we say
    子供たちが遊んでいます
    雨が降っています
     

    tagoot

    Senior Member
    Japanese
    On the premise you are familiar with the conjugation of verbs, surely 遊んで is the て-form of the verb 遊ぶ, and 遊んでいます is the polite form of 遊んでいる.
    There is no difference in this way of saying between intransitive verbs and transitive verbs.

    Did I answer your question? By the way皆今日は!is strange, and you should say 皆さん、こんにちは!
     

    frequency

    Senior Member
    Japanese
    いる is 1) an intransitive verb, yes, when it's used standalone. 2) an auxiliary verb when it is in a form of ~ている.
    This grammar states that the continuous form is obtained by attaching いる to the て-form of a TRANSITIVE verb.
    You can use this ~ている for both transitive and intransitive verbs.

    Intransitive verbs can't form continuous form?
    ~ている can make a present continuous form, so 遊んでいる is a present continuous: Sb is playing.
    I recommend you to memorise 「~ている」 and 「~でいる」.
    According to a sound before て, this て changes to で.
    See 遊んでいる vs 食べている.
    (食べる can be a transitive verb.)
     

    kamot

    Senior Member
    Japanese - Japan
    According to Haruhiko Kindaichi's (Japanese linguist) study, there are four types of verbs regarding ている-form.

    (1) 状態動詞(Stative verb) ex: ある(be/exist)、いる(be/exist)
    Represents state. These verbs cannot take ている-form.
    :tick:その本はここにある(The book is here.)
    :cross:その本はここにあっている

    (2) 継続動詞(Durational verb) ex: 読む(read)、泣く(cry)、降る(fall)
    Represents continuous action. These verbs can take ている-form, which represent progressive tense (進行形:be doing).
    :tick:彼は本を読む(He reads a book.)
    :tick:彼は本を読んでいる(He is reading a/the book.)

    (3) 瞬間動詞(Momentary verb) ex: 死ぬ(die)、決まる(be decided)
    Represents momentary action. These verbs can take ている-form, which represent perfect tense (完了形:have done).
    :tick:彼は死ぬ(He dies.)
    :tick:彼は死んでいる(He has died.)

    (4) 第4種の動詞(4th type of verb) ex: 優(すぐ)れる(be superior/excellent)、似る(resemble)
    Represents state as ている-form. These verbs always take ている-form.
    :cross:彼は英語に優れる
    :tick:彼は英語に優れている(He is excellent in English.)

    This classification doesn't seem to be strictly related to transitivity.
    (Although it might be related to some extent.)

    For details, see 継続動詞・瞬間動詞・状態動詞・第4種の動詞 | 日本語教師の広場.
     
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