までに vs まで + 時間 + かかる

thetazuo

Senior Member
Chinese - China
見たところここは郊外。人の数もそう多くはない。だが、今は深夜。昼間よりも避難までに時間がかかるだろう。辺りから人がいなくなるまで一体何分かかる?

Hi. I understand that まで in the sense of “until” is followed by a stative verb while までに is followed by a punctual verb.

Or to put it in another way, まで means you keep doing something until a specific time while までに means you need to finish something by a particular time.

So why is the first bold part までに while the second bold part doesn’t have に? Is it because the first かかる is punctual and the second かかる is stative? This seems weird. Please shed some light on it.
Thank you.
 
  • Joschl

    Member
    Japanese
    thetazuo said:
    [...]まで means you keep doing something until a specific time while までに means you need to finish something by a particular time.
    What thetazuo is talking about can be illustrated with example sentences like 今まで本を読んでいる and 明日までに本を読み終える.

    But I'm wondering whether the question here won't be about the aspect of the verbal item within the made (ni)-clause, i.e. ([X]が)[verb-(r)u] made (ni), rather than the aspect of the verb "[時間が/何分]掛る". Let's change the phrase 避難まで(に) into a clause 避難するまで(に) by attaching the verb "する" to the noun 避難 to make the comparison between the clauses easier.

    1a) 昼間よりも避難するまで時間が掛るだろう。
    1b) 昼間よりも避難するまでに時間が掛るだろう。
    2a) 辺りから人がいなくなるまで一体何分掛る?
    2b) 辺りから人がいなくなるまでに一体何分掛る?
    3a) 昼間よりも辺りから人がいなくなるまで時間が掛るだろう。
    3b) 昼間よりも辺りから人がいなくなるまでに時間が掛るだろう。
    4a) 避難するまで一体何分掛る?
    4b) 避難するまでに一体何分掛る?

    Does each of the sentences sound equally okay to you guys? If not, why not?
     
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